Barents Sea megabenthos: Spatial and temporal distribution and production

Main Article Content

D. V. Zakharov

senior researcher, PhD

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0885-3249

https://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?id=733786

L. L. Jørgensen

senior researcher, PhD

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8591-0657

I. E. Manushin

chief specialist

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9246-195X

https://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?id=598807

N. A. Strelkova

leading researcher, PhD

http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9721-1098

https://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?id=892134

Abstract

This long-term observation of the faunal composition within the Barents Sea provides a benchmark for monitoring community changes caused by oceanographic variability, fishery activities, and crab predators (Chionoecetes opilio, Paralithodes camtschaticus), whose populations have been rapidly growing and spreading in recent years. In the Arctic systems, megabenthic communities comprise a significant part of benthic biomass and play an important role in carbon cycling on continental shelves. The gradual accumulation of knowledge on megabenthos may make it possible to assess their role in the ecosystem and ultimately contribute to a more rational management of the Barents Sea resources. This article represents an important series of long-term megabenthic observations in the Barents Sea. The main goal of our research is to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the megabenthic part of communities, including changes in the biomass and production values. As a part of the joint Norwegian-Russian ecosystem surveys, benthic experts have been identifying the invertebrates (megafauna) collected by bottom trawls during annual assessments of commercial stocks, such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). The sampling equipment used was a Campelen 1800 bottom trawl, rigged with rockhopper ground gear and towed on double warps, and standardized to a fixed sampling effort (equivalent to a towing distance of 0.75 nautical miles (nm), or 1.4 km). The processing of the biological material was conducted in accordance with standardized procedures, following the retrieval of each trawl. This work represents data from 5016 stations from 2005 to 2017, with a total sampled biomass of 238.4 tons and 14.9 million individual organisms. In total, 694 megabenthic species (1058 taxa) have been recorded, with the greatest diversity observed in the depth range of 100–400 m, while the largest mean catches were taken between depths of 600–800 m. The biomass (B) and production (P) values of the benthic megafauna were approximately stable during the 9 years of investigation, although there was a decreasing trend after 2014. The annual production P/B ratio of megabenthos was calculated to be at 0.3. The distribution, contribution to production, and gross biomass values of the megabenthos had been underestimated in the previous studies of zoobenthos. The results from this research show that, in the current warm period, the majority of the Barents Sea is in an intermediate state between the Arctic and boreal regions due to the wide distribution of boreal species toward the north. The dynamics of the mean biogeographical index (the border between areas of the dominance of boreal and Arctic species) within the central-southern part of the Barents Sea suggests that a large part of the area can be characterized as predominantly boreal intermediate since 2013.

Article Details

Zakharov D. V., Jørgensen L. L., Manushin I. E., Strelkova N. A. Barents Sea megabenthos: Spatial and temporal distribution and production. Marine Biological Journal, 2020, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 19-37. doi: 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.2.03
Keywords:
Arctic, Barents Sea, megabenthos, climate, Atlantic Current, production, species distribution
Section
Scientific communications

References

Atlas of the megabenthic organisms of the Barents Sea and adjacent waters. Murmansk : PINRO, 2018, 534 p. (in Russ.)

Anisimova N. A. Echinoderms of the southern part of the Kara Sea. In: Fauna of the invertebrates of the Barents, the Kara and the White Seas / G. G. Matishov (Ed.). Apatity : KSC RAS, 2003, pp. 111–130. (in Russ.)

Antipova T. V. Echinoderms of the southern part of the Kara Sea. Trudy of the Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, 1975, iss. 35, pp. 121–124. (in Russ.)

Årthun M., Eldevik T., Smedsrud L. H., Skagseth Ø., Ingvaldsen R. B. Quantifying the influence of Atlantic heat on Barents Sea ice variability and retreat. Journal of Climate, 2012, vol. 25, iss. 13, pp. 4736–4743. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00466.1

Asplin L., Ingvaldsen R., Loeng H., Sætre R. Transport of Atlantic Water in the western Barents Sea. [Copenhagen : International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2001]. (ICES CM 2001/W:03).

Blacker R. W. Recent changes in the benthos of the West Spitsbergen fishing grounds. Special Publication of the International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 1965, no. 6, pp. 791–794.

Bluhm B. A., Iken K., Hardy S. M., Sirenko B. I., Holladay B. A. Community structure of epibenthic megafauna in the Chukchi Sea. Aquatic Biology, 2009, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 269–293. https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00198

Boitsov V. D., Karsakov A. L., Trofimov A. G. Atlantic water temperature and climate in the Barents Sea, 2000–2009. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2012, vol. 69, iss. 5, pp. 833–840. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fss075

Brotskaya V. A., Zenkevich L. A. Quantitative evaluation of the bottom fauna of the Barents Sea. Transactions of the Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography of the USSR, 1939, vol. 4, pp. 5–98. (in Russ.) ; pp. 99–126. (Summ. in Engl.)

Cheung W. W., Lam V. W., Sarmiento J. L., Kearney K., Watson R., Pauly D. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries, 2009, vol. 10, iss. 3, pp. 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00315.x

Degen R., Jørgensen L. L., Lubin P., Ellingsen I. H., Pehlke H., Brey T. Patterns and drivers of megabenthic secondary production on the Barents Sea shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2016, vol. 546, pp. 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11662

Denisenko S. G. Zoobentos Barentseva morya v usloviyakh izmenyayushchegosya klimata i antropogennogo vozdeistviya. In: Dinamika morskikh ekosistem i sovremennye problemy sokhraneniya biologicheskogo potentsiala morei Rossii. Vladivostok : Dal’nauka, 2007, pp. 418–511. (in Russ.)

Denisenko S. G. Ekologiya i resursy islandskogo grebeshka v Barentsevom more. Apatity : Kol’skii nauchnyi tsentr AN SSSR, 1989, 138 p. (in Russ.)

Denisenko S. G. Long-term changes of zoobenthos biomass in the Barents Sea. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 2001, vol. 289, pp. 59–66.

Denisenko S. G. Bioraznoobrazie i bioresursy makrozoobentosa Barentseva morya: struktura i mnogoletnie izmeneniya. Saint Petersburg : Nauka, 2013, 284 p. (in Russ.)

Dyer M. F., Cranmer G. J., Fry P. D., Fry W. G. The distribution of benthic hydrographic indicator species in Svalbard waters, 1978–1981. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1984, vol. 64, iss. 3, pp. 667–677. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400030332

Filatova Z. A., Zenkevich L. A. Kolichestvennoe raspredelenie donnoi fauny Karskogo morya. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo gidrobiologicheskogo obshchestva, 1957, vol. 8, pp. 3–67. (in Russ.)

Fossheim M., Primicerio R., Johannessen E., Ingvaldsen R. B., Aschan M. M., Dolgov A. D. Recent warming leads to a rapid borealization of fish communities in the Arctic. Nature Climate Change, 2015, vol. 5, iss. 7, pp. 673–677. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2647

Frainer A., Primicerio R., Kortsch S., Aune M., Dolgov A. V., Fossheim M., Aschan M. M. Climate-driven changes in functional biogeography of Arctic marine fish communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017, vol. 114, no. 46, pp. 12202–12207. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706080114

Franke R. Scattered data interpolation: Test of some methods. Mathematics of Computations, 1982, vol. 33, no. 157, pp. 181–200. https://doi.org/10.2307/2007474

Galkin Y. I. Long-term changes in the distribution of mollusks in the Barents Sea related to the climate. Berichte der Polarforschung, 1998, vol. 287, pp. 100–143.

Galkin S. V., Vedenin A. A., Minin K. V., Rogacheva A. V., Molodtsova T. N., Rajskiy A. K., Kucheruk N. V. Macrozoobenthos of southern part of St. Anna Trough and adjacent Kara Sea shelf. Oceanology, 2015, vol. 55, iss. 4, pp. 614–622. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001437015040098

Grebmeier J. M., Smith W. O., Conover R. J. Biological processes on Arctic continental shelves: Ice-Ocean-Biotic interactions. In: Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves / W. O. Smith, J. M. Grebmeier (Eds). Washington, DC : American Geophysical Union, 1995, pp. 231–261. (Coastal and Estuarine Studies ; vol. 49). https://doi.org/10.1029/CE049p0231

Herman Y. (Ed.) The Arctic Seas: Climatology, Oceanography, Geology, and Biology. Boston, MA : Springer, 1989, 888 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0677-1

Hoegh-Guldberg O., Bruno J. F. The impact of climate change on the world’s marine ecosystems. Science, 2010, vol. 328, iss. 5985, pp. 1523–1528. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1189930

Interim Report of the Working Group on the Integrated Assessments of the Barents Sea (WGIBAR), 9–12 March, 2018, Tromsø, Norway. Copenhagen, Denmark : International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2018, 210 p. (WGIBAR 2018 Report ; ICES CM 2018/IEASG: 04).

Jirkov I. A. Biogeography of the Barents Sea benthos. Invertebrate Zoology, 2013, vol. 10, iss. 1, pp. 69–88.

Johannesen E., Høines Å. S., Dolgov A. V., Fossheim M. Demersal fish assemblages and spatial diversity patterns in the Arctic-Atlantic transition zone in the Barents Sea. PLoS One, 2012, vol. 7, iss. 4, art. E34924 (14 p.). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034924

Johannesen E., Jørgensen L. L., Fossheim M., Primicerio R., Greenacre M., Lubin P., Dolgov A. V., Ingvaldsen R. B., Anisimova N. A., Manushin I. E. Large-scale patterns in community structure of benthos and fish in the Barents Sea. Polar Biology, 2017, vol. 40, iss. 2, pp. 237–246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-016-1946-6

Jørgensen L. L., Ljubin P., Skjoldal H. R., Ingvaldsen R. B., Anisimova N., Manushin I. Distribution of benthic megafauna in the Barents Sea: Baseline for an ecosystem approach to management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2015, vol. 72, iss. 2, pp. 595–613. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu106

Jørgensen L. L., Primicerio R., Ingvaldsen R. B., Fossheim M., Strelkova N., Thangstad T. H., Zakharov D. Impact of multiple stressors on sea bed fauna in a warming Arctic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2019, vol. 608, pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12803

Klages M., Boetius A., Christensen J. P., Deube H., Piepenburg D., Schewe I., Soltwedel T. The benthos of Arctic seas and its role for the organic carbon cycle at the seafloor. In: The Organic Carbon Cycle in the Arctic Ocean / R. Stein, R. W. Macdonald (Eds). Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2004, pp. 139–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18912-8_6

Kortsch S., Primicerio R., Fossheim M., Dolgov A. V., Aschan M. Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2015, vol. 282, iss. 1814, art. 20151546 (9 p.). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1546

Kuznetsov A. P. On the distribution of trophic groupings of bottom invertebrates in the Barents Sea. Transactions of the P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 1970, vol. 88, pp. 5–80. (in Russ.)

Lind S., Ingvaldsen R. B. Variability and impacts of Atlantic water entering the Barents Sea from the north. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 2012, vol. 62, pp. 70–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2011.12.007

List of Species of Free-living Invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic Seas and Adjacent Deep Waters / B. I. Sirenko (Ed.). Saint Petersburg : Zoological Institute RAS, 2001, 129 p. (Explorations of the Fauna of the Seas ; iss. 51 (59)).

Manushin I. E. Srednyaya massa osobi kak pokazatel’ skorosti oborota veshchestva v populyatsiyakh vodnykh ektotermnykh zhivotnykh. In: Materialy X nauchnogo seminara “Chteniya pamyati K. M. Deryugina”. Saint Petersburg : KopiServis, 2008, pp. 29–34. (in Russ.)

Manushin I. E., Anisimova N. A., Lyubin P. A., Dahle S., Cochrane S. Mnogoletnie izmeneniya v makrozoobentose yugo-vostochnoi chasti Barentseva morya. In: Materialy XIV nauchnogo seminara “Chteniya pamyati K. M. Deryugina”. Saint Petersburg : SpbGU, 2012, pp. 33–45. (in Russ.)

Matishov G. G., Volkov V. A., Denisov V. V. Structure of warm Atlantic water circulation in the Northern Barents. Doklady Russian Academy of Sciences, 1998, vol. 362, no. 4, pp. 553–556. (in Russ.)

Matishov G. G., Matishov D. G., Moiseev D. V. Inflow of Atlantic-origin waters to the Barents Sea along glacial troughs. Okeanologia, 2009, no. 51 (3), pp. 321–340.

Nesis K. N. Izmeneniya donnoi fauny Barentseva morya pod vliyaniem kolebanii gidrologicheskogo rezhima (na razreze po Kol’skomu meridianu). In: Sovetskie rybokhozyaistvennye issledovaniya v moryah Evropeiskogo Severa. Moscow : Pishchepromizdat, 1960, pp. 129–138. (in Russ.)

Ozhigin V. K., Ivshin V. A. Vodnye massy Barentseva morya. Murmansk : Izd-vo PINRO, 1999, 48 p. (in Russ.)

Ozhigin V. K., Ivshin V. A., Trofimov A. G., Karsakov A. L., Antsiferov M. Yu. Waters of the Barents Sea: Structure, circulation, variability. Murmansk : PINRO, 2016, 260 p. (in Russ.)

Oziel L., Sirven J., Gascard J.-C. The Barents Sea frontal zones and water masses variability (1980–2011). Ocean Science, 2016, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 169–184. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-12-169-2016

Roy V., Iken K., Archambault P. Regional variability of megabenthic community structure across the Canadian Arctic. Arctic, 2015, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 180–192.

Shorygin A. A. Iglokozhie Barentseva morya. Trudy Morskogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo instituta, 1928, vol. 3, no. 4, 128 p. (in Russ.)

Smedsrud L. H., Esau I., Ingvaldsen R. B., Eldevik T., Haugan P. M., Li C., Lien V. S., Abdirahman A. O., Omar M., Otterå O. H., Risebrobakken B., Sandø A. B., Semenov V. A., Sorokina S. A. The role of the Barents Sea in the Arctic climate system. Reviews of Geophysics, 2013, vol. 51, iss. 3, pp. 415–449. https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20017

Sokolov K. M., Pavlov V. A., Strelkova N. A. et al. Snow crab Chionoecetes opilio in the Barents and Kara seas. Murmansk : PINRO, 2016, 242 p. (in Russ.)

Tantsyura A. I. On seasonal changes of currents in the Barents Sea. Trudy of the Knipovich Polar Research and Designing Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, 1973, iss. 34, pp. 108–112. (in Russ.)

Vassilenko S. V., Petryashov V. V. (Eds). Illustrated Keys to Free-living Invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic Seas and Adjacent Deep Waters. Vol. 1: Rotifera, Pycnogonida, Cirripedia, Leptostraca, Mysidacea, Hyperiidea, Caprellidea, Euphausiacea, Dendrobranchiata, Pleocyemata, Anomura, and Brachyura. Fairbanks, Alaska : Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks ; Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2009, 192 p. https://doi.org/10.4027/ikflieasadw.2009

Walsh S. J., McCallum B. R. Performance of the Campelen 1800 shrimp trawl during the 1995 Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre autumn groundfish survey. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Scientific Council Studies, 1997, no. 29, pp. 105–116.

Zakharov D. V., Anisimova N. A., Stepanenko A. M. First record of the sea star Porania pulvillus (O. F. Müller, 1776) in Russian part of the Arctic. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 2016, vol. 7, iss. 4, pp. 321–323. https://doi.org/10.1134/S207511171604010X

Zakharov D. V., Jørgensen L. L. New species of the gastropods in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 2017, vol. 8, iss. 3, pp. 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2075111717030146

Zakharov D. V., Manushin I. E., Strelkova N. A., Pavlov V. A., Nosova T. B. Diet of the snow crab in the Barents Sea and macrozoobenthic communities in the area of its distribution. Trudy VNIRO, 2019, vol. 172, pp. 70–90. (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.36038/2307-3497-2018-172-70-90