History of formation and peculiarities of Ponto-Caspian fish myxosporean fauna

Main Article Content

Yurakhno V. M., Özer A. N. History of formation and peculiarities of Ponto-Caspian fish myxosporean fauna. Marine Biological Journal, 2020, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 99-110. https://doi.org/10.21072/mbj.2020.05.1.10

Article Details


History of formation of Ponto-Caspian basin fish myxosporean fauna is examined. This work is based on our own material on myxosporean parasites of fish from the Black Sea (collected in 1987–2018) and the Sea of Azov (1997–2016). Totally, we have investigated 15 368 specimens of 87 species of fish (14 297 specimens of 80 species of fish in the Black Sea and 1071 specimens of 19 species of fish in the Sea of Azov). The material was collected by the method of incomplete parasitological dissections and treated by generally accepted methods. Also, all available literary sources on the myxosporean parasites of fish from the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the Caspian Sea are analyzed (references list contains the most significant publications). A comparative analysis of fish myxosporean fauna in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the Caspian Sea is performed. It is stated that 108 parasite species are known in the Black Sea, 42 – in the Sea of Azov, and 68 – in the Caspian Sea. Number of myxosporean parasite species common for the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea is 32, for the Caspian and Black seas – 32, and for the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea – 20. Totally 16 species of myxosporean parasites are registered in all the mentioned seas. To date, of 108 myxosporean species of Black Sea region, 29 are registered only in freshwater fish in the estuaries with considerable brackish water. For 79 myxosporean species, marine fish species serve as hosts; they are registered mainly in full-salt sea part, and 17 of them are of freshwater origin: 7 species are registered in freshwater fish and in euryhaline mullets; 1 parasitizes on freshwater and marine salmon fishes; the only hosts for 9 species are mullets or other marine fish species. Marine forms are represented by Pontic (22 species), Ponto-Azov (3), and Ponto-Caspian (2) endemics, as well as by Mediterranean invaders (35). Among freshwater myxosporeans, only 1 species is Black Sea endemic; 1 species is Ponto-Azov endemic, and most other species are widely represented in freshwater reservoirs. Among Mediterranean invaders, 23 species found in the Mediterranean Sea should be noted; 12 species still have not been registered in the Mediterranean Sea, mainly due to very few studies on this group of parasites. The fauna of Sea of Azov fish parasites includes 42 myxosporean species; 32 of them are found in the Black Sea, 20 – in the Caspian Sea. Totally 19 species belong to freshwater ones, and they are parasitic only in freshwater fish species. Ten species are of freshwater origin but can be registered in marine fish species (mostly in mullets, and one – in gobies). Of the freshwater species, one is Ponto-Azov endemic. Totally 13 myxosporean species are marine ones: 2 species are Sea of Azov endemics; 3 species are Ponto-Azov endemics; 8 species are Mediterranean invaders. Caspian Sea fauna includes 68 species of myxosporeans: 8 are marine ones (1 is ancient marine species; 1 is Ponto-Caspian endemic; 6 are brackish-water myxosporeans), and 60 are freshwater species. Five endemics of the Caspian Sea are known (2 of marine origin and 3 of freshwater origin). When moving from west to east (from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea), a gradual impoverishment of marine myxosporean fauna and its replacement by freshwater myxosporean species are observed. Impoverishment of Myxosporea species composition of the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea in comparison with the Black Sea one is also found.


V. M. Yurakhno

senior researcher, PhD



A. N. Özer

prof., PhD



Arkhangelsky A. D. Hydrogen sulfide contamination of some Tertiary sea basins of the Crimea and Caucasus region and its connection with the origin of petroleum. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo, 1926, vol. 10, iss. 4, pp. 483–486. (in Russ.)

Arkhangelsky A. D., Strakhov N. M. Geological History of the Black Sea. Moscow ; Leningrad : Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1938, 226 p. (in Russ.)

Bortnikov E. S., Strizhakova T. V., Boiko N. E., Ruzhinskaya L. P., Shevkoplyasova N. N. Myxobolosis of the flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus in the Russian waters of the Black Sea. In: Contemporary Problems of Theoretical and Marine Parasitology : Coll. of Sci. Papers / K. V. Galaktionov, A. V. Gaevskaya (Eds). Sevastopol : Izd-l’ Bondarenko N. Yu., 2016, pp. 211–213. (in Russ.)

Campbell N. The myxosporean parasitofauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L.) in the North-East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Acta Parasitologica, 2005, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 97–101.

Dogel V. A. General Parasitology. Leningrad : Izd-vo Leningr. un-ta, 1962, 464 p. (in Russ.)

Donets Z. S. Zoogeographical analysis of myxosporeans in the USSR southern water reservoirs. Trudy Zoologicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, 1979, vol. 87, pp. 65–90. (in Russ.)

Donets Z. S. Formation of myxosporeans fauna in the USSR southern seas. Trudy Zoologicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, 1981, vol. 107, pp. 74–79. (in Russ.)

Donets Z. S. Myxosporeans of the USSR Southern Rivers Basins : avtoref. diss. … d-ra biol. nauk. Leningrad, 1982, 43 p. (in Russ.)

Gaevskaya A. V., Gusev A. V., Delyamure S. L., Donets Z. S., Iskova N. I., Kornyushin V. V., Kovaleva A. A., Margaritov N. M., Markevich A. P., Mordvinova T. N., Naidenova N. N., Nikolaeva V. M., Parukhin A. M., Pogoreltseva T. P., Smogorzhevskaya L. A., Solonchenko A. I., Shteyn G. A., Schulman S. S. (Contrs). Opredelitel’ parazitov pozvonochnykh Chernogo i Azovskogo morei. Paraziticheskie bespozvonochnye ryb, ryboyadnykh ptits i morskikh mlekopitayushchikh. Kiev : Naukova dumka, 1975, 552 p. (in Russ.)

Gazimagomedov A. A. To the study of parasitic Protozoa of the Caspian Sea fish. In: Sbornik nauchno-issledovatelskikh rabot Dagestanskogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo veterinarnogo instituta. Makhachkala, 1970, vol. 4, pp. 291–293. (in Russ.)

Gazimagomedov A. A. New species of mucous sporozoans of the Caspian Sea fish. In: Voprosy fiziologii, biokhimii, zoologii, parazitologii : sbornik nauchnykh soobshchenii kafedry fiziologii cheloveka i zhivotnykh, zoologii i biokhimii. Makhachkala, 1970, pp. 72–76. (in Russ.)

Gürkanlı C., Okkay S., Çiftçi Y., Yurakhno V., Özer A. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Ortholinea mullusi sp. nov. (Myxozoa) in Mullus barbatus from the Black Sea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2018, vol. 127, pp. 117–124. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03192

Ibragimov Sh. R. Caspian Sea Fish Parasites (Species Composition, Ecology, Origin and Fauna Formation) : avtoref. dis. … d-ra biol. nauk. Baku, 1991, 47 p. (in Russ.)

Ibragimov Sh. R. Zoogeographical status of Caspian Sea with consideration of the data on fish parasites. In: Sovremennye problemy biologicheskikh resursov Kaspiiskogo morya : materialy mezhdunar. konf., posvyashch. 90-letiyu Azerb. NIIRKh, 15–17 Sept., 2003. Baku, 2003, pp. 224–228. (in Russ.)

Ibragimov Sh. R. Parasite fauna of the Caspian Sea for long period of observations. In: Problemy ikhtiopatologii v nachale XXI veka : materialy mezhdunar. nauch. konf. Saint Petersburg, 2009, pp. 65–78. (in Russ.)

Iskov M. P. Myxosporeans (Myxosporea). In: Fauna Ukrainy. Kiev : Naukova dumka, 1989, vol. 37, iss. 4, 210 p. (in Russ.)

Kessler K. F. Fish inhabiting and occurring in Aral-Caspian-Pontian ichthyological region. Trudy Aralo-Kaspiyskoi ekspeditsii, 1877, iss. 4, 360 p. (in Russ.)

Kolesnikova M. G., Donets Z. S. Fauna of myxos-poreans in the Crimean coast fish. In: Parazitologiya i patologiya morskikh organizmov : tez. dokl. 14-go Vsesoyuzn. simp. Kaliningrad, 1987, pp. 89–90. (in Russ.)

Lubat V., Radujkovic B., Marques A., Bouix G. Parasites des poissons marins du Montenegro: Myxosporidies. Acta Adriatica, 1989, vol. 30, no. 1/2, pp. 31–50.

Moshu A. Ja., Trombitsky I. D. New parasites (Apicomplexa, Cnidospora) of some Clupeidae fishes from the Danube and Dniester basins. In: Academician Leo Berg – 130 : Coll. of Sci. Articles. Bendery : Eco-TIRAS ; Tipogr. “ELAN POLIGRAF”, 2006, pp. 95–103.

Naidenova N. N. Parazitofauna ryb semeistva bychkovykh Chernogo i Azovskogo morei. Kiev : Naukova dumka, 1974, 182 p. (in Russ.)

Osmanov S. U. Materials for the Black Sea fish parasitic fauna. Uchenye zapiski Leningradskogo pedinstituta im. Gertsena, 1940, vol. 30, pp. 187–265. (in Russ.)

Ovcharenko M., Yurakhno V., Tytar V. Review of microparasites of mullets in the Mediterranean basin and the Sea of Japan. Revista Romănă de Parazitoilogie, 2007, vol. 17 (suppl.), pp. 142–143.

Özer A., Okkay S., Gürkanlı C. T., Çiftçi Y., Yurakhno V. Two novel myxosporean parasites in Black Sea fishes: Kudoa niluferi sp. nov. and Kudoa anatolica sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2018, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 225–233. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03227

Özer A., Özkan H., Yurakhno V. New host and geographical records for Ortholinea orientalis (Schulman et Schulman-Albova, 1953) (Myxozoa, Myxosporea). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 2015, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 595–597.

Özer A., Özkan H., Güneydağ S., Yurakhno V. First report of several myxosporean (Myxozoa) and monogenean parasites from fish species collected from Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2015, vol. 15, pp. 741–749. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v15_3_18

Özer A., Özkan H., Gürkanlı C. T., Yurakhno V., Çiftçi Y. Morphology, histology and phylogeny of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. (Myxobolidae: Myxozoa) infecting gills of Parablennius tentacularis in the Black Sea, Turkey. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2016, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 207–215. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02968

Özer A., Öztürk T., Özkan H., Çam A. First report of Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) in the Black Sea in a potential reservoir host Chromis chromis. Fish Pathology, 2014, vol. 49, iss. 2, pp. 57–60. https://doi.org/10.3147/jsfp.49.57

Özer A., Yurakhno V. Parasite fauna of garfish Belone belone collected from Sinop coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathology, 2013, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 171–180.

Reshetnikova A. V. Parasitic Fauna of Some Food Fish Species of the Black Sea : avtoref. dis. … kand. biol. nauk. Leningrad, 1954, 14 p. (in Russ.)

Şimşek E. First molecular data on Myxobolus episquamalis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the scale of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) off the Turkish Black Sea coasts. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi = Turkish Journal of Parasitology, 2019, vol. 43, iss. 3, pp. 135–142. (in Turkish). https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6294

Strakhov N. M. Istoriya geologii. 2nd edition, revised. Moscow : Gosuchpedizdat, 1938, 501 p. (in Russ.)

Strakhov N. M. Osnovy istoricheskoi geologii. In 2 parts. Moscow : Gosgeolizdat, 1948, pt. 1, 253 p. ; pt. 2, 396 p. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M. New data of the fauna of myxosporidians from fishes of the Black Sea. Parazitologiya, 1993, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 320–326. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M. Myxosporeans of the Black Sea Fish: Systematics, Fauna, Ecology, Zoogeography. [dissertation]. Sevastopol, 1994, 297 p. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M. To fish myxosporean fauna (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) in Taganrog Gulf (Sea of Azov). Vestnik zoologii, 2005, suppl. 19, pt. 2, pp. 369–370. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M. The origin of the Black Sea fish myxosporean (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) fauna. Vestnik zoologii, 2009, suppl. 23, pp. 199–207. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M., Naidenova N. N. Davisia cornuta sp. n. (Myxosporea: Sinuolineidae), the parasite of Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas in the Azov Sea. Ekologiya morya, 2000, iss. 51, pp. 78–80. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M., Ovcharenko N. A. Myxosporeans of the World Ocean mullets. In: Parazitologiya v XXI veke – problemy, metody, resheniya : materialy IV Vseros. kongr. Parazitologicheskogo obshchestva Rossiiskoi akademii nauk, 20–25 Oct., 2008. Saint Petersburg : “Lema”, 2008, pp. 231–234. (in Russ.)

Yurakhno V. M., Ovcharenko M. O. Study of Myxosporea (Myxozoa), infecting worldwide mullets with description of a new species. Parasitology Research, 2014, vol. 113, iss. 10, pp. 3661–3674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4031-5

Yurakhno V. M., Ӧzer A. N. Fauna of myxosporeans of the Ponto-Caspian basin fishes (origin, comparative analysis). In: Sovremennye problemy parazitologii i ekologii. Chteniya, posvyaschennye pamyati S. S. Shulmana : sbornik trudov Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem, Tolyatti, 15–17 May, 2018. Tolyatti : Poliar, 2018, pp. 334–345. (in Russ.)

Zenkevich L. A. Fauna i biologicheskaya produktivnost’ morya. Moscow : Sovetskaya nauka, 1947, 588 p. (Morya SSSR ; vol. 2). (in Russ.)

Zenkevich L. A. Biologiya morei SSSR. Moscow : Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1963, 740 p. (in Russ.)

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh : in 7 vols / Polyanskiy Yu. I. (Ed.). Moscow : Prosveshchenie, 1987, vol. 1, 448 p. (in Russ.)



Download data is not yet available.