Phenotypic and sexual structure of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., cultivated on the mussel-oyster farm in the outer harbor of Sevastopol city (Crimea, Black Sea)

Main Article Content

N. S. Chelyadina

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2552-4073

https://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?id=745094

Abstract

Morphophysiological studies of hydrobionts, and, in particular, mussels cultivated in marine farms, become important for modern hydrobiology. The study of the phenotypic structure of the mussel settlements in the Black Sea is an important aspect of monitoring the state of the mollusk population in changing environmental conditions. Information about patterns of sex realization under certain conditions can be the basis for active management of settlement formation in the cultivation of mollusks. Data about the regularities of sexual maturation of mussels, the stages of maturity of gonads and gametes spawning are also of importance. The aim of the work was to assess the phenotype and sex structure of the mussel populations as well as the stages of gonads maturity of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis cultivated on the mussel-oyster farm located in the outer harbor of Sevastopol. Mussels with the size of the shell from 4.9 to 5.4 mm were collected monthly from March 2015 to August 2016 on the studied mussel-oyster farm. Phenotype, sex and stages of gonad maturity were determined in mollusks by standard methods. When determining the frequency of occurrence of mussel phenotype on the mussel-oyster farm, a higher percentage of mollusks with black color shells (Bl) in comparison with whose with brown color shells (Br) was observed, and on average for the studied period the shell phenotype ratio (Bl : Br) was 1.8 : 1 respectively. Data on the sexual structure of M. galloprovincialis on the studied mussel-oyster farm are presented. Average ♂ : ♀ ratio was 2.8 : 1, with the proportion of hermaphrodites reaching 1–6 %. The sex ratio was different every month. In March 2015 it was 1.7 : 1 (♂ : ♀) and by August 2015, while mollusks growing on the mussel’s collector, the share of males reached its maximum (8 : 1). After thinning the mussels on the collector, the sex ratio had stabilized by October 2015 and remained at the level of 2 : 1 until March 2016. The next subsidence of the young and increase of mussels mass on the collector had again led to a significant shift of the mussel sexual structure (7.5 : 1) by May 2016. One of the reasons of the increase in the number of males in the studied mussel-oyster farm is thought to be the high density of mussels in the druse resulting in local hypoxia and poor food accessibility. The analysis of the state of gonads maturity of cultivated mussels showed two peaks of spawning – spring (March, April) and a long autumn one (started in October and continued until early December). Mass reproduction of mussels was observed in the spring when the surface water layer warmed up to 9–12 °C and in the autumn with the decrease of water temperature to 18 °C. The asynchronous maturation of the gonads of M. galloprovincialis of both sexes was observed. Males had greater variability of maturity stages than females. The shift in the ratio of the sexes towards the increase of males share as well as the increase of the number of mussels with black color shell and also the asynchronous maturation of the gonads of M. galloprovincialis on the studied farm can be considered as the ecological and physiological response of mollusks to the environment changes.

Article Details

Keywords
Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, phene, sex, maturity stage of the gonads, mussel-oyster farm
Section
Scientific communications

References

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