Marine Biological Journal <p>Морской биологический журнал Marine Biological Journal.</p> <div><em><strong>Launched in February 2016.</strong></em></div> <div><em><strong>Certificates of registration:</strong></em></div> <div>print version: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ПИ № ФС 77 - 76872 of 24.09.2019</a>.</div> <div> <div><em><strong>Founder:</strong></em></div> <div>A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS.</div> </div> <div><em><strong>Publishers</strong></em>:</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS</a>,</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Institute of&nbsp;RAS</a>.</div> <div>ISSN 2499-9768 print, ISSN 2499-9776 online.</div> <div><em><strong>Languages:&nbsp;</strong></em>Russian, English.</div> <div><em><strong>Periodicity:</strong></em> four issues a&nbsp;year.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>Authors do&nbsp;not need to&nbsp;pay an&nbsp;article-processing charge.</strong></div> <div>The payment of&nbsp;royalties is&nbsp;not&nbsp;provided.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Author recieves one copy of&nbsp;printed version of&nbsp;the journal as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;.pdf file.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <p>Marine Biological Journal is&nbsp;an&nbsp;open access, peer reviewed (double-blind) journal. The journal publishes original&nbsp;articles as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;reviews and brief reports and notes focused on new data of&nbsp;theoretical and experimental research in&nbsp;the fields of&nbsp;marine biology, diversity of&nbsp;marine organisms and their populations and communities, patterns of&nbsp;distribution of&nbsp;animals and plants in&nbsp;the World Ocean, the&nbsp;results of&nbsp;a&nbsp;comprehensive studies of&nbsp;marine and oceanic ecosystems, anthropogenic impact on&nbsp;marine organisms and on&nbsp;the ecosystems.</p> <p>Intended audience: biologists, hydrobiologists, ecologists, radiobiologists, biophysicists, oceanologists, geographers, scientists of other related specialties, graduate students, and students of&nbsp;relevant scientific profiles.</p> <p>The subscription index in&nbsp;the “<a title="Russian Press MBJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Russian Press</a>” catalogue is Е38872.</p> </div> </div> en-US (Корнийчук Юлия Михайловна \ Kornyychuk Yulia Mikhailovna) (Баяндин Алексей Сергеевич) Mon, 20 Sep 2021 10:18:55 +0000 OJS 60 Fishing under climate change: Dynamics of composition and structure of catches in the Russian Black Sea in the XXI century <p>Currently, the Black Sea ecosystem is undergoing significant changes, and that affects the dynamics of the species composition of catches. The main reasons for the change in the Black Sea ichthyofauna are considered to be: fishing, anthropogenic water pollution, invasion of new species, and the effect of large-scale climatic and related oceanological and hydrological processes on the productivity characteristics of commercial Black Sea fish. With no understanding the patterns of the effect of these factors on ichthyofauna, it is impossible to rationally use bioresources and protect nature. The aim of the work was to study the effect of climate warming on the species composition and structure of catches in the Russian Black Sea in the XXI century. The authors had used: the results of own ichthyological observations; data published on the composition of the Black Sea catches; and the information available on the official websites of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, the Federal Agency for Fishery, and its Sea of Azov – Black Sea Territorial Administration. The analysis of the possible effect of global warming on the results of fishing in the Russian Black Sea was carried out. It is shown that in the XXI century, the ratio of thermophilic fish, which spawn in the summer, increased; those species are European anchovy <em>Engraulis encrasicolus</em> (Linnaeus, 1758), red mullet <em>Mullus barbatus</em> Linnaeus, 1758, and horse mackerel <em>Trachurus mediterraneus</em> (Steindachner, 1868). As established, the dynamics of the ichthyofauna in the area is determined by at least four processes related to water warming: improvement of reproduction conditions and increased survival of eggs and juveniles of thermophilic species; change in the intraspecific structure; invasion and naturalization of Mediterranean species with the subsequent change in the food relationships within the ecosystem; and concentration of psychrophilic species at greater depths. The need for a thorough study of this issue is concluded, aimed at long-term forecasting of the raw material base state of the fishing industry in the Russian Black Sea.</p> P. A. Balykin, D. N. Kutsyn, A. V. Startsev Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioindication of the water salinity dynamics by the microalgae communities in the Lena River Delta, Laptev Sea, Russian Arctic <p>The Lena River in the Laptev Sea forms a vast delta, one of the largest in the world. The Ust-Lensky State Nature Reserve saves biodiversity on the Lena Delta territory beyond the Arctic Circle, in the zone of continuous permafrost. In recent years, large-scale plans for the development of extractive industries are implemented in this Russian Arctic sector. In this regard, the study of biodiversity and bioindication properties of aquatic organisms in the Lena River estuary area is becoming more and more relevant. This study aims to identify the species composition of microalgae in lotic and lentic water bodies of the Lena River Delta and use their indicator property for water salinity. It was a trace indicator of species distribution over the delta and their dynamics along the delta main watercourses to assess the impact of river waters on the Laptev Sea coastal areas. For this, all previously published materials on algae and chemical composition of the region waters as well as data obtained in recent years for the waters of the lower Lena reach were involved. In total, 700 species considered to 10 phyla were analyzed: Cyanobacteria (83), Euglenozoa (13), Ochrophyta (Chrysophyta, Xanthophyta) (41), Eustigmatophyta (4), Bacillariophyta (297), Miozoa (20), Cryptophyta (3), Rhodophyta (1), Chlorophyta (125), and Charophyta (111). The available materials of the field and reference observations were analyzed using several statistical methods. The study results indicate that hydrological conditions are the main factor regulating the spatial structure of the species composition of the microalgae communities in the Lena River Delta. The distribution of groups of salinity indicators across flowing water bodies reflects the effect of water salinity, and this allows suggesting possible sources of this effect. The mechanism of tracking the distribution of environmental indicators itself is a sensitive method, that reveals even their subtle changes in them; therefore, as an integral method, it can be helpful for further monitoring.</p> S. S. Barinova, V. A. Gabyshev, A. P. Ivanova, O. I. Gabysheva Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 On the maximum length for Sardinella aurita (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae) from the Mediterranean Sea <p>Two specimens of round sardinella, <em>Sardinella aurita</em> Valenciennes, 1847, with a total length of 39.1 and 36.6 cm and a weight of 359.01 and 293.48 g, respectively, were caught by a purse seine net in Bouzedjar Bay, Algeria, on 8 August, 2019. These sizes of both specimens are the maximum recorded for this species in the Mediterranean Sea.</p> L. Bensahla-Talet, A. Bensahla-Talet Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of algae macrophyte in bioremediation of petroleum products of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea <p>The contribution of macroalgae to the removal process of diesel fuel from the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea was estimated. The calculations were based on the results of: 1) recent expeditionary observations of the reserves, spreading, and biomass of algae macrophyte of the phyla Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, as well as the class Phaeophyceae of the phylum Ochrophyta, inhabiting three bay areas; 2) laboratory research of the ability of macroalgae <em>Ascophyllum nodosum</em>, <em>Fucus vesiculosus</em>, <em>F. distichus</em>, <em>F. serratus</em>, <em>Saccharina latissima</em>, <em>Palmaria palmata</em>, and <em>Ulvaria obscura</em> to neutralize the toxic effect of diesel fuel. As shown, the total contribution of the algae studied into bioremediation of diesel fuel in the bay was of 312 kg·day<sup>−1</sup>. The differences in the absorption capacity of algae macrophyte were revealed. This process was most efficiently carried out by <em>S. latissima</em>; the minimum efficiency of participation in bioremediation was determined for <em>U. obscura</em>. It was concluded that the existing littoral and sublittoral thickets of marine macroalgae of the Kola Bay can be considered as the key element in the implementation of the preventive, daily cleaning of coastal water from the petroleum products. The inclusion in the calculations of data on the ability of other representatives of the bay phytobenthos to neutralize diesel fuel may increase the role of algae macrophyte in cleaning the coastal marine areas from the petroleum products. As concluded, the thickets of brown algae can be considered as the key component of repair and homeostasis in coastal ecosystems. The destruction of even a part of algae natural communities can change the ecosystem balance.</p> G. M. Voskoboinikov, S. V. Malavenda, L. O. Metelkova Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 New information on the bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus, 1758) and red-throated diver Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan, 1763) on the Crimean Peninsula (the Black Sea) <p>New data on the distribution of the bar-tailed godwit <em>Limosa lapponica</em> (Linnaeus, 1758) and red-throated diver <em>Gavia stellata</em> (Pontoppidan, 1763) on the Crimean Peninsula are presented. Against the backdrop of aquatic and coastal ecosystems’ transformation under natural and anthropogenic impact, even single finds of hydrophilic avifauna representatives in atypical spatiotemporal conditions are of interest for the analysis of emerging trends in migration phenology and abundance of both separate species and taxonomic and ecological groups of birds. The aim of the study was to clarify the distribution boundaries and terms of stay on the Crimean Peninsula of two hydrophilic bird species: semiaquatic species, bar-tailed godwit, and true water bird, red-throated diver. Bird observations were carried out during scheduled accountings on the Isthmus of Ak-Monay (March 2012) and in the Kruglaya Bay (Sevastopol) (July 2019). The bar-tailed godwit is registered in Crimea during spring and autumn migration periods. For the first time, it was found in the north of the Crimean Peninsula in 1972; later, there were an increase in its abundance and expansion of a distribution area. Recent records of this species in southern Crimea significantly expanded the known boundaries of its distribution on the peninsula during the migration period. The observation of the bar-tailed godwit in eastern Crimea on 14 March, 2012, specified the date its spring migration begins; the observation in Sevastopol (western foothill) on 27 July, 2019, was the first one in Mountain Crimea. Off the Crimean coast, the red-throated diver is a rare overwintering and migratory bird. The find of the red-throated diver individual in the Kruglaya Bay on 19 January, 2020, was the third reliable record of this species overwintering in Crimea and the first one in Sevastopol area. The registration of the red-throated diver at a considerable distance from its usual overwintering areas (off the southwestern coast of the Black Sea), along with numerous facts of the expansion of nesting or winter ranges of different bird species northward, confirms the ongoing climatic and ecological changes. Particular attention should be focused on the problem, associated with low ecological culture of the use and disposal of fishing tackles, which have a detrimental effect on hydrophilic birds. Measures have to be developed to regulate fishing with nets, hooks, and line tackles in the areas of bird mass overwintering and seasonal migrations.</p> V. E. Giragosov, M. M. Beskaravayny, I. E. Drapun Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Brief overview on study of genetically modified organisms and assessment of potential risks of their usage for natural species <p>Brief information is summarized on the genetically modified organisms (GMOs), methods of their construction, spheres of usage, potential risks of GMOs propagation, necessity, and ranges of control of their usage, <em>inter alia</em> their application to aquatic organisms. The data available allow concluding that the expert community currently has no exact answer concerning the scale of GMOs usage in the country, as well as about the degree of genetic safety of their usage in several fields of industry, especially in semi-closed systems for growing plants and rearing of animals and other living beings in the Russian Federation and other countries. Application of molecular genetic markers and new law regulations will help in monitoring GMOs usage in agriculture and other industries in Russia and responding to requests from the Russian Government and social institutions, as well as many challenges on genetic safety.</p> Yu. Ph. Kartavtsev Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Specification of polymorphism and classification of shell coloration in gastropods by the example of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) <p>Understanding the patterns of microevolutionary processes involves a wide range of population genetic studies on different species. However, the number of genetically studied species is limited due to significant methodological difficulties in testing the genetic conditionality of various traits. Developing population phenetics may become an alternative, which allows considering a large number of new species subject to development of morphologically and genetically-based system to describe the variability and classification of phenotypic traits. Gastropods are a classic object for carrying out population genetic studies based on the analysis of polymorphism of shell coloration. The parametric classification system proposed by S. Sergievsky <em>et al.</em> (1995) for periwinkles of the genus <em>Littorina</em> may serve as a basis for the developing of a universal system for classifying color traits for that taxonomic group. Since a large amount of new data has been published in recent years, this system requires correction and revision. The study aims to revise the system, taking into account new material on the pigment composition, as well as on the peculiarities of the formation and inheritance of color traits, their joint occurrence, <em>etc.</em> A revised and modified classification system for shell coloration traits is presented by the example of the White Sea gastropods <em>L. obtusata</em>; this system considers the idea of the formation of a phenotype as a combination of several elementary traits. These are traits associated with the formation of: 1) a shell background color (the ability to include different pigments in the ostracum and the hypostracum color); 2) a pattern of spots (the presence of inclusions of white and/or brown pigment); and 3) wide longitudinal bands (brown, white, and orange). Elementary traits are highlighted taking into account the pigments involved, as well as the mechanisms of their formation and inheritance. When describing the shell coloration, elementary traits are first used to describe relatively simple traits (groups of phenes “Shell background color”, “Hypostracum color”, “Pattern of spots”, and “Wide longitudinal bands”), which are subsequently combined to describe the phenotype as a whole. Our study provides an overview of the available data on the qualitative composition of shell pigments in periwinkles and patterns of formation and inheritance of color traits; their possible combinations are described. The phenes isolated by us are described together with their occurrence, color specification in the RGB system, and the peculiarities of the formation, taking into account the distribution of pigments in the shell. Visible traits, that may be used to assess the distribution of pigments in the shell, are indicated. The ontogenetic changes in traits are described. Despite the fact that the proposed classification system is developed by the example of <em>L. obtusata</em>, it can be used for same purposes for other periwinkle species and, with some modifications, for a wide range of gastropod species.</p> E. V. Kozminsky Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phenomenon of the complete suppression of cardiac activity in the Black Sea scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus (Scorpaenidae) during an alertness reaction <p>Teleosts serve as experimental models for the physiological and pathophysiological processes investigation, in particular those related to the heart work. Methods allowing to analyze the frequency parameters of the heart functioning over a long period of time require taking into account the peculiarities of fish behavioral reactions, that can affect the results of the experiment. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the simplest test loading (sound stimulus) on the frequency parameters of the heart activity recorded by the fiber-optic method. The objects of the study were adults of <em>Scorpaena porcus</em> (12–15 cm long, 80–120 g in weight). In the course of experiments, each scorpionfish was kept in a separate aquarium with seawater (400×400×350 mm), with constant temperature (21 ± 0.5) °C and given oxygen content (5.5–6.7 mg·L<sup>−1</sup>, normoxia). The heart rate (HR) recording was carried out by an invasive fiber-optic method, the essence of which is to transmit the radiation of the infrared semiconductor laser of the photoplethysmograph through a thin fiber-optic cable to the pericardial membrane of the heart and then to fix the signal reflected from the contracting myocardium in the photodetector. During implantation of the photoplethysmograph light guides, the fish were anesthetized by placing them in an anesthetic solution (urethane, 2.4 g·L<sup>−1</sup> of seawater). In the fornix of the opercular cavity above the area of the conditional heart projection, a minimal dissection of the lining epithelium was performed, through which the underlying tissues were sequentially separated by a blunt method until the pericardial membrane was reached without breaking it. Through the lumen formed in the tissues, two optical light guide sensors were introduced to the surface of the pericardial membrane. Further, free-swimming scorpionfish participated in the experiment after a day of rehabilitation after the surgery. Additionally, we assessed the functional state of the animals by visual fixation of respiratory activity by the quantity of movements of the opercular covers <em>per</em> minute. During studying the test loading effect on the correct registration of the scorpionfish HR, the phenomenon of temporary complete suppression of cardiac activity was revealed, which manifested itself upon presentation of sound stimuli (alertness, “freezing” reaction). The duration of cardiac arrest was 31 to 50 seconds; it was accompanied by the cessation of movement of the opercular covers (respiratory arrest, apnea). During the restoration of cardiac activity, two types of physiological reactions were noted. The first type of recovery reaction was characterized by a simultaneous 1.5-fold increase in the HR and a 2-fold enhancement in the photoplethysmograph signal amplitude. The second type of reaction was accompanied by a rise in the HR by 22 % (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) against the backdrop of a decrement in the signal amplitude of the photoplethysmograph sensors by 28 % (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05); within 120 seconds, the scorpionfish HR returned to baseline. It is assumed that the short-term delay in the scorpionfish cardiac activity is based on the phenomenon of cardiorespiratory coupling and synchronization. The behavioral reaction in the form of suppression for the cardiac and simultaneously respiratory activity generation ensures the complete absence of acoustic and electrical signals, which unmask an ambush predator location, and contributes to the scorpionfish survival.</p> E. E. Kolesnikova, M. P. Kirin, A. A. Soldatov, I. V. Golovina Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Autecology of benthic diatom Striatella unipunctata (Lyngbye) C. A. Agardh, 1832 – indicator of organic water pollution (Black Sea and Sea of Japan) <p>Analysis of long-term data (1987–2019) was carried out on the morphology and autecology of the benthic colonial large-cell species <em>Striatella unipunctata</em> (Lyngbye) C. A. Agardh, 1832 in the microphytobenthos of the Black Sea and Sea of Japan, including water areas of specially protected natural areas of Russia. The species is widely found on natural and artificial substrates in the Black Sea year-round, and in the Sea of Japan, at a water temperature down to −1.5 °C. <em>St. unipunctata</em> quantitative data were determined by direct cell counting in the Goryaev camera under light microscopes (LMs) Biolam L-212, Axioskop 40, and Olympus BX41. Species morphology, phytogeography, and ecology are described. The cell size range of populations is presented: for the Black Sea, valves 25–148 µm long, 8–22 µm wide, frustules 36.3–50.4 µm wide, 18–24 fibulae in 10 µm, and 7–8 girdle bands in 10 µm; for the Sea of Japan, valves 85–125 µm long, 12–21 µm wide, 7–8 girdle bands in 10 µm, 20–25 fibulae in 10 µm, frustules 32.0–34.3 µm long, 10–11 µm wide, and 25 fibulae in 10 µm. For the first time, <em>St. unipunctata</em> valves and frustules were studied <em>in vivo</em> under LMs, and frustule ultrastructure, under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the first time, quantitative indicators of the species populations from the Black Sea and Sea of Japan were compared. The morphology of the frustule ultrastructure of <em>St. unipunctata</em> was studied under a Hitachi SEM, model SU3500 (Japan), in Leica EM ACE200 gold-palladium-coated samples. In the Kazachya Bay of the Black Sea near the Oceanarium, the absolute maximum abundance was recorded – 41.6·10³ cells·cm<sup>−2</sup> with a biomass of 1.73 mg·cm<sup>−2</sup> in January (t = +6.9 °C) in the epizoon of the cultured mussel <em>Mytilus galloprovincialis</em> Lamarck, 1819 at a depth of 0.5 m at excessive organic pollution of water. The minimum values were of 0.26·10³ cells·cm<sup>−2</sup> and 0.011 mg·cm<sup>−2</sup>, respectively, in July (t = +23.5 °C) at a depth of 2.5 m. In the Paris Bay (Russky Island) of the Sea of Japan in the water area of the Marine Mammal Research Base of the Primorsky Oceanarium (Vladivostok), the abundance in the asbestos plates periphyton was of 207·10³ cells·cm<sup>−2</sup> in the summer. For the first time, unique micrographs of the species <em>in vivo</em> were obtained under a LM, and of purified frustules – under a SEM.</p> L. I. Ryabushko, A. A. Begun, A. G. Shiroyan, D. N. Lishsaev, E. S. Miroshnichenko Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Status of plankton algocenosis in the water area of the port of Tuapse and beyond it in the spring-summer period of 2019 <p>The article presents the research of qualitative structure and quantitative development of phytoplankton in the water area of the port of Tuapse and beyond it in the spring-summer period of 2019. In April 2019, 43 phytoplankton species of 5 divisions were found. In the port area, the mean values of abundance and biomass were of 568 thousand cells·L<sup>−1</sup> and 206 mg·m<sup>−3</sup>, respectively; in the open sea area, the values were 1.5 times higher. In the port area and beyond it, diatoms developed abundantly: 98–99 % of the total phytoplankton abundance and 62–65 % of the biomass. Small-cell species <em>Pseudo-nitzschia</em> spp. and <em>Skeletonema costatum</em> s. l. formed the basis of the abundance; <em>Pseudosolenia calcar-avis</em>, <em>Dactyliosolen fragilissimus</em>, and <em>Chaetoceros affinis</em> formed the basis of the biomass as well. In June 2019, a decrease was recorded in qualitative (13 species from 4 divisions) and quantitative values of phytoplankton development. In the port area, the mean values of planktonic algae abundance and biomass were of 59 thousand cells·L<sup>−1</sup> and 81 mg·m<sup>−3</sup>, respectively; in the open sea area, these values were more than 2 times lower. In the water area of the port, euglenids developed abundantly: % of the phytoplankton abundance and 83 % of the biomass; those were represented by a mesosaprobic species <em>Eutreptia lanowii</em>. Beyond the port of Tuapse, euglenids were not found; in terms of abundance, diatoms predominated (95 %): <em>Skeletonema costatum</em> s. l. and <em>Thalassionema nitzschioides</em>. The following Dinophyta species formed the basis of the phytoplankton biomass (82 %): <em>Ceratium tripos</em>, <em>C. furca</em>, <em>Ensiculifera carinata</em>, <em>Glenodinium paululum</em>, <em>Prorocentrum micans</em>, and <em>Protoperidinium crassipes</em>.</p> O. N. Yasakova Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 In memoriam: Yuriy Slynko (09.10.1961 – 14.07.2021) <p>On July 14, 2021, a talented, extraordinary, and purposeful ichthyologist Yuriy Vladislavovich Slynko passed away. Yu. Slynko left more than 250 scientific publications and 7 collective monographs.</p> Students, colleagues, and friends Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000