Marine Biological Journal https://mbj.marine-research.org/ <p>Морской биологический журнал Marine Biological Journal.</p> <div><em><strong>Launched in February 2016.</strong></em></div> <div><em><strong>Certificates of registration:</strong></em></div> <div>print version: <a href="https://mbj.marine-research.org/public/journals/1/doc/registry_print.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ПИ № ФС 77 - 76872 of 24.09.2019</a>,</div> <div>online version: <a href="https://mbj.marine-research.org/public/journals/1/doc/registry_online.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 76873 of 24.09.2019</a>.</div> <div> <div><em><strong>Founder:</strong></em></div> <div>A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS.</div> </div> <div><em><strong>Publishers</strong></em>:</div> <div><a href="http://ibss-ras.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS</a>,</div> <div><a href="https://www.zin.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Institute of&nbsp;RAS</a>.</div> <div>ISSN 2499-9768 print, ISSN 2499-9776 online.</div> <div><em><strong>Languages:&nbsp;</strong></em>Russian, English.</div> <div><em><strong>Periodicity:</strong></em> four issues a&nbsp;year.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>Authors do&nbsp;not need to&nbsp;pay an&nbsp;article-processing charge.</strong></div> <div>The payment of&nbsp;royalties is&nbsp;not&nbsp;provided.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Author recieves one copy of&nbsp;printed version of&nbsp;the journal as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;.pdf file.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <p>Marine Biological Journal is&nbsp;an&nbsp;open access, peer reviewed (double-blind) journal. The journal publishes original&nbsp;articles as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;reviews and brief reports and notes focused on new data of&nbsp;theoretical and experimental research in&nbsp;the fields of&nbsp;marine biology, diversity of&nbsp;marine organisms and their populations and communities, patterns of&nbsp;distribution of&nbsp;animals and plants in&nbsp;the World Ocean, the&nbsp;results of&nbsp;a&nbsp;comprehensive studies of&nbsp;marine and oceanic ecosystems, anthropogenic impact on&nbsp;marine organisms and on&nbsp;the ecosystems.</p> <p>Intended audience: biologists, hydrobiologists, ecologists, radiobiologists, biophysicists, oceanologists, geographers, scientists of other related specialties, graduate students, and students of&nbsp;relevant scientific profiles.</p> <p>The subscription index in&nbsp;the “<a title="Russian Press MBJ" href="https://www.pressa-rf.ru/cat/1/edition/e38872/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Russian Press</a>” catalogue is Е38872.</p> </div> </div> A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol, Russian Federation en-US Marine Biological Journal 2499-9768 Peculiarities of temporal variability of dissolved oxygen content in eelgrass Zostera marina Linnaeus, 1753 meadows in the Voevoda Bay (the Amur Bay, the Sea of Japan) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/288 <p>Currently, the shallow basins with <em>Zostera marina</em> L. meadows are considered as absorbers of atmospheric carbon dioxide, capable of restraining an increase in its concentration. Due to its high primary productivity, eelgrass releases a large amount of oxygen into the environment. To establish the peculiarities of production activity in shallow-water basins, covered with <em>Z. marina</em> meadows, we conducted monitoring of hydrological and production indicators with different measurement intervals on the example of the Voevoda Bay (the Amur Bay, the Sea of Japan). Observations were carried out for eight and a half months (22.09.2012–07.06.2013). Measurements of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity were carried out in <em>Z. marina</em> meadows at a depth of 4 m every three hours by a Water Quality Monitor hydrological station. Dissolved oxygen content was determined every hour by an optical oxygen sensor ARO-USB. Two types of oxygen concentration variability were established: 1) seasonal variability, mostly resulting from seasonal variations in the environment; 2) daily variability during the freeze-up period, mostly determined by the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation penetration into sub-ice water. In the autumn season, low oxygen concentrations, up to hypoxic level, were recorded. In the winter and spring seasons, the oxygen content was, as a rule, at 100–130 % of saturation. High daily variability was observed during the freeze-up period, with no snow coverage. In February, the range of daily fluctuations of oxygen concentration reached 730 μmol·kg<sup>−1</sup>, with 3-fold supersaturation regarding atmospheric O<sub>2</sub>. As established, the maximum rate of oxygen production, relative to 1 g of <em>Z. marina</em> wet weight, is 6.5 mg O<sub>2</sub>·h<sup>−1</sup>·g<sup>−1</sup>. High daily dynamics of oxygen in seawater is analyzed in relation to eelgrass physiological peculiarities (air lacunae play an important role in oxygen dynamics in the environment), as well as to short-period tides.</p> <p>.</p> Yu. A. Barabanshchikov P. Ya. Tishchenko P. Yu. Semkin V. I. Zvalinsky T. A. Mikhailik P. P. Tishchenko Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 3 16 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.01 Study of fouling communities succession under conditions of the device of controlled water flow https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/286 <p>For testing the anticorrosive and antifouling protective coatings, a ground stand is developed: the device of controlled water flow. The relevance of the study is undeniable, given the practical significance of the problem. The stand is connected to the main of sea running water. The device makes it possible to imitate the motion of aqueous flow around the vessel, thus simulating the conditions of moving amphibious facility. The aim of this work is to present for the first time the new device, created by us, which received a positive decision of Rospatent (Federal Service for Intellectual Property). For two months, full-scale field tests were carried out. They have showed essential qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of fouling communities on the experimental plates, placed into the device of controlled water flow and suspended in the water column on the pier of the Zapad marine biological station of the National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, FEB RAS. Benthic diatoms predominate in the periphyton community under the conditions of the device of controlled water flow; there is practically no zoofouling. Phytocenosis of green algae, which is common for a vessel variable loadline or a hydraulic structure drainage zone, is presented on the plates from the open bay. The efficiency of using the device of controlled water flow, created by us, is shown for studying the patterns of formation of the fouling communities in different hydrodynamic flows. The main practical conclusion is that the device can be used to verify the properties of protective coatings on the substrates tested, <em>inter alia</em> antifouling and anticorrosive coatings.</p> A. Yu. Zvyagintsev S. I. Maslennikov A. K. Tsvetnikov A. A. Begun N. I. Grigoryeva Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 17 33 10.21072/10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.02 The first record of rock-boring mollusc Petricola lithophaga (Retzius, 1788) inside the valves of oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), cultivated in Crimea (the Donuzlav Bay, the Black Sea) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/281 <p>The number of mollusc farms off the coast of Crimea and the Caucasus has increased significantly in recent years. The cultivation of the Pacific oyster <em>Crassostrea gigas</em> (Thunberg, 1793) requires monitoring of mollusc health and parasitological control of mariculture farms. The aim of this work was to study species composition of epibionts and endobionts, associated with shells of cultivated oyster <em>C. gigas</em>, as well as to identify species, damaging shells. Commercial oysters with visual shell damage were collected on a mariculture farm in the Donuzlav Bay (Crimea, the Black Sea) and brought to the laboratory alive chilled. As a result of 22 oysters’ examination, 14 macrozoobenthos species and live specimens of rock-boring mollusc <em>Petricola lithophaga</em> (Retzius, 1788) were found. The size of rock-borers varied 9 to 16 mm; their age was about two years. Prolonged presence of <em>P. lithophaga</em> inside oyster valves can cause degradation of shell calcareous layer and even death of the mollusc host; this fact is of great importance for the Black Sea mariculture. Considering <em>P. lithophaga</em> annual development cycle, during the period of mass larval settlement (July to October), it is recommended to inspect the shells of cultivated oysters. Further detailed studies will allow to develop measures for prevention and protection of bivalve molluscs from infestation with <em>P. lithophaga</em>.</p> M. A. Kovalyova O. Yu. Vyalova Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 34 40 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.03 Assessment of radiation state of marine environment in the Leningrad NPP area according to long-term monitoring data (1973–2019) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/289 <p>The aim of the study was to conduct a radioecological assessment of the Leningrad NPP marine cooling reservoir – Koporye Bay of the Gulf of Finland. According to the international basic safety standards, accepted at the IAEA General Conference, this issue is of particular relevance due to the need to justify protection from technogenic radiation exposure both to humans and the environment. The assessment was based on the long-term radioecological monitoring data (1973–2019) within the Leningrad NPP observation area: radionuclides concentration in seawater, bottom sediments, and hydrobionts. The reference levels of radionuclides content in seawater and bottom sediments were used as indicators of the radiation state of the marine environment; their calculation procedure is defined in the Recommendations R 52.18.852-2016 and R 52.18.873-2018, issued by the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation). These recommendations, developed by RPA “Typhoon” specialists, contain a methodology for assessing the radioecological state of the marine environment by the level of radionuclides activity, based on the principles, ensuring the maintenance of favorable environment, safety of marine hydrobionts, and radiation protection of humans. In the presence of various radionuclides in the marine environment, the sum of technogenic radionuclide activity ratios in seawater (bottom sediments) to the corresponding reference levels shall be below 1. According to monitoring data in the early period of NPP operation (1973–1985), a wide spectrum of technogenic radionuclides was observed in the marine ecosystem components. Along with <sup>137</sup>Cs, significant contributors to the contamination of seawater and bottom sediments were <sup>54</sup>Mn and <sup>60</sup>Co. In contrast to reference levels for <sup>137</sup>Cs, reference levels for <sup>54</sup>Mn and <sup>60</sup>Co in seawater are determined by an environmental criterion, not a radiation-hygienic one. The presence of technogenic radionuclides in algae was registered at distances, exceeding 10 km from the NPP. Biogenic transfer of corrosion radionuclides (<sup>54</sup>Mn, <sup>60</sup>Co, and <sup>65</sup>Zn) by fish into rivers, flowing into the Koporye Bay, was noted. The Chernobyl disaster led to a noticeable increase in the pollution of the Koporye Bay with technogenic radionuclides. In May – December 1986, the sum of technogenic radionuclide activity ratios in seawater to the reference levels exceeded the pre-accidental level by 100 times, and in bottom sediments – by 30 times. In 1986, <sup>137</sup>Cs and <sup>134</sup>Cs were the main contributors to the marine ecosystem radioactive contamination. Currently, the technogenic radioactivity of seawater and bottom sediments of the Koporye Bay is mainly determined by <sup>137</sup>Cs; its level is relatively constant, which indicates the stability of the radioecological situation in the Leningrad NPP marine cooling reservoir.</p> I. I. Kryshev T. G. Sazykina N. N. Pavlova I. V. Kosykh A. A. Buryakova A. I. Kryshev Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 41 57 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.04 Additional data on morphology and distribution of Melitoides valida (Shoemaker, 1955) (Amphipoda, Melitidae) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/284 <p>The genus <em>Melitoides</em> Gurjanova, 1934 (Amphipoda, Melitidae) includes three species from the Arctic and northwestern Pacific: <em>Melitoides makarovi</em> Gurjanova, 1934, <em>M. valida</em> (Shoemaker, 1955), and <em>M. kawaii</em> Labay, 2014. <em>M. makarovi</em> and <em>M. kawaii</em> only were recorded until recently in the seas of the Russian Far East. Only two specimens of <em>M. valida</em> were found once near the Arctic coast of Alaska; therefore, the morphological description of the species was incomplete, which led to difficulties with its generic identification. For the first time, <em>M. valida</em> was found in the seas of the Russian Far East in September 2018 on the shelf of the Sea of Okhotsk, near the North-Eastern Sakhalin Island at the depth of 29 m on the sand bottom. Detailed re-description of the species was carried out using optical and electronic scanning microscopes by the Coleman protocol. The material collected is stored at the Crustacea collection of the Zoological Museum of Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok). The specimen from the Sea of Okhotsk is identical to the specimens of the type series from the Arctic coast of Alaska in the form of dorsal carination (with several teeth on posterior margin of pleon segments 2, 3 and urosomites 1, 2), in the structure of pereopods 1–7, especially in the form of propodus of pereopods 2 (palm with distinct posterior-distal tooth, as well as with three large and one small obtuse palmar teeth). <em>M. valida</em> description has been substantially supplemented, and information on its range has been expanded.</p> V. S. Labay Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 58 66 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.05 Marine and freshwater microalgae as a sustainable source of cosmeceuticals https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/287 <p>A prominent feature of stress-tolerant microalgae is their versatile metabolism, allowing them to synthesize a broad spectrum of molecules. In microalgae, they increase stress resilience of these organisms. In human body, they exhibit anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and sunscreen activities. This is not surprising, given that many of the stress-induced deleterious processes in human body and in photosynthetic cell are mediated by the same mechanisms: free-radical attacks and lipid peroxidation. It is also worth noting, that the photosynthetic machinery of microalgae is always at risk of oxidative damage since high redox potentials and reactive molecules are constantly generated during its functioning. These risks are kept at bay by efficient reactive oxygen species elimination systems including, <em>inter alia</em>, potent low-molecular antioxidants. Therefore, photosynthetic organisms are a rich source of bioactive substances with a great potential for curbing the negative effects of stresses, acting on human skin cells on a day-to-day basis. In many cases these compounds appear to be less toxic, less allergenic, and, in general, more “biocompatible” than most of their synthetic counterparts. The same algal metabolites are recognized as promising ingredients for innovative cosmetics and cosmeceutical formulations. Ever increasing efforts are being put into the search for new natural biologically active substances from microalgae. This trend is also fueled by the growing demand for natural raw materials for foods, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetology, associated with the global transition to a “greener” lifestyle. Although a dramatic diversity of cosmeceuticals was discovered in macrophyte algae, single-celled algae are on the same level or even surpass them in this regard. At the same time, a large-scale biotechnological production of microalgal biomass, enriched with the cosmeceutical compounds, is more technically feasible and economically viable than that of macrophyte biomass. The autotrophic cultivation of microalgae is generally simpler and often cheaper than that of heterotrophic microorganisms. Cultivation in bioreactors makes it possible to obtain more standardized raw biomass, quality of which is less dependent on seasonal factors. Microalgae biotechnology opens many possibilities to the “green” cosmeceutical production. However, a significant part of microalgae chemo- and biodiversity remains so far untapped. Consequently, bioprospecting and biochemical characterization of new algal species and strains, especially those isolated from habitats with harsh environmental conditions, is a major avenue for further research and development. Equally important is the development of approaches to cost-effective microalgae cultivation, as well as induction, extraction, and purification of cosmeceutical metabolites. World scientific community is rapidly accumulating extensive information on the chemistry and diverse effects of microalgae substances and metabolites; many substances of microalgal origin are extensively used in the cosmetic industry. However, the list of extracts and individual chemicals, isolated from them and thoroughly tested for safety and effectiveness, is not yet very large. Although excellent reviews of individual microalgal cosmeceutical groups exist, here we covered all the most important classes of such compounds of cosmeceutical relevance, linking the patterns of their composition and accumulation with the relevant aspects of microalgae biology.</p> T. V. Puchkova S. A. Khapchaeva V. S. Zotov A. A. Lukyanov A. E. Solovchenko Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 67 81 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.06 Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of structural indicators of the bacterioplankton community of the Sevastopol Bay (the Black Sea) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/283 <p>Bacterioplankton community determines formation of a significant part of the secondary production and mineralization of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, as well as responds quickly to any changes in the environment. Data on the state of the microbial community are required for understanding the processes of substance and energy flow transfer in aquatic ecosystems; this is especially important for coastal waters, where significant negative transformations have occurred in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze changes in structural indicators of the bacterioplankton community in different areas of the Sevastopol Bay (the Black Sea) during 1992–2005. Bacterial abundance was determined by direct microscopy, using adsorption (erythrosine) or fluorescent (acridine orange) stains; biomass was calculated using a conversion factor (2·10<sup>−14</sup> g C·cell<sup>−1</sup>) or by direct cell measurements. Cell morphotypes were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The total abundance of microorganisms varied 0.2·10<sup>6</sup> to 10·10<sup>6</sup> cells·mL<sup>−1</sup>; biomass – 2 to 201 mg C·m<sup>−3</sup>. In the morphological structure of bacterioplankton community, cocci (0.36–0.86 μm in diameter) with a volume of 0.02–0.27 μm³ and rod-shaped cells (0.6–1.2 μm length; 0.2–0.4 μm width) with a volume of 0.50–0.65 μm³ prevailed. Maximum values of the bacterioplankton abundance, biomass, and cell size in the Sevastopol Bay were registered in summer and autumn (June to October), while minimum values were recorded in winter and spring. The observed values of bacterioplankton quantitative indicators were comparable with the values for various coastal water areas of the World Ocean, <em>inter alia</em> the Black Sea. The dynamics of bacterioplankton structural indicators of the Sevastopol Bay during the annual cycle was determined by abiotic and biotic environmental factors. High correlation (86 %, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) between the hydrological, hydrochemical, and biological variables confirms the non-random nature of the relationship between them. The discriminant analysis revealed significant differences in the structure of bacterioplankton communities for the bay areas with different intensity of water exchange, degree of general pollution, and distance from the open sea. Significantly smaller bacterial cell volume in 2004 [(0.16 ± 0.05) μm³] compared with that of 2005 [(0.20 ± 0.03) μm³] (paired <em>t</em>-test, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) was probably related to intense microorganisms’ grazing by phagotrophic protozoa. The obtained data on the structure of the bacterioplankton community can be used for forecasting the state of the Sevastopol Bay ecosystem, as well as for developing and verifying mathematical models of coastal ecosystems functioning.</p> O. A. Rylkova I. G. Polikarpov Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 82 101 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.07 Development of phytoplankton in the winter-spring period in the coastal waters of Crimea https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/274 <p>The analysis of phytoplankton in the winter-spring period is important for investigating peculiarities of its annual dynamics and the Black Sea ecosystem overall functioning. Phytoplankton state in the winter-spring period in the Black Sea shelf zone is less studied than that of the summer-autumn season; conducting such a research is especially important for solving several problems, related to the productivity of the last links of the food chain, the formation of water hydrochemical regime, and the carbon cycle in the sea. The aim of the work is to assess the effect of seasonal conditions on the development of phytoplankton and its production estimates in the winter-spring period in the coastal waters of Crimea. The article presents the results of studies of hydrophysical (water temperature, density, and relative transparency) and biological indicators (chlorophyll <em>a</em> concentration, its fluorescence, taxonomic composition, and phytoplankton production estimates) in the Black Sea shelf zone in January – April 2016–2019. The studies were carried out at 50 stations, located in the coastal waters of Crimea from the Karkinitsky Bay to the Kerch Strait. Chlorophyll <em>a</em> concentration was measured by the standard fluorometric method, species composition was determined by microscopy, and phytoplankton specific growth rate was calculated according to the previously developed model. In winter (January – February), the values of chlorophyll <em>a</em> content and upper mixed layer depth were the highest (0.42–0.52 mg·m<sup>−3</sup> and 44–58 m, respectively); in spring (March – April) they were 2–3 times lower. In January – February, the coccolithophore species <em>Emiliania huxleyi</em> (Lohmann) W. W. Hay &amp; H. P. Mohler, 1967 predominated; in March – April, in different years, either dinoflagellates and diatoms or coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diatoms prevailed. In winter, chlorophyll <em>a</em> vertical distribution at most stations was uniform; in spring, unimodal profiles with a depth maximum prevailed, the location of which was not related to temperature and density gradients. Relative changes in chlorophyll <em>a</em> concentration and fluorescence with depth were usually the same. Phytoplankton production and daily production/biomass ratio (P/B) increased from winter to spring. There was no correlation between the values of integral production, biomass, and maximum specific growth rate of algae. Maximum specific growth rate was the least variable indicator. During the winter-spring period, algae in the photosynthetic zone divided on average once every 2–5 days.</p> Z. Z. Finenko I. M. Mansurova I. V. Kovalyova E. Yu. Georgieva Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 102 114 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.1.08 To the jubilee of Lidiya Salekhova https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/290 <p>In January 2021, Lydiya Salekhova celebrated her anniversary. L. Salekhova is the author of more than 70 scientific publications, including the monograph “Sparidae fishes of the seas of the Mediterranean Basin”.</p> Colleagues from IBSS ichthyology department Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 115 116 To the memory of Lidiya Oven (06.05.1930 – 09.01.2021) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/291 <p>Lidiya Oven, D. Sc., who had worked for many years in the IBSS ichthyology department, passed away. L. Oven is the author of more than 100 scientific publications, <em>inter alia</em> three collective and two individual monographs.</p> Colleagues from IBSS ichthyology department Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 6 1 117 118