Marine Biological Journal <p>Морской биологический журнал Marine Biological Journal.</p> <div><em><strong>Launched in February 2016.</strong></em></div> <div><em><strong>Certificates of registration:</strong></em></div> <div>print version: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ПИ № ФС 77 - 76872 of 24.09.2019</a>.</div> <div> <div><em><strong>Founder:</strong></em></div> <div>A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS.</div> </div> <div><em><strong>Publishers</strong></em>:</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS</a>,</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Institute of&nbsp;RAS</a>.</div> <div>ISSN 2499-9768 print, ISSN 2499-9776 online.</div> <div><em><strong>Languages:&nbsp;</strong></em>Russian, English.</div> <div><em><strong>Periodicity:</strong></em> four issues a&nbsp;year.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>Authors do&nbsp;not need to&nbsp;pay an&nbsp;article-processing charge.</strong></div> <div>The payment of&nbsp;royalties is&nbsp;not&nbsp;provided.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Author recieves one copy of&nbsp;printed version of&nbsp;the journal as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;.pdf file.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <p>Marine Biological Journal is&nbsp;an&nbsp;open access, peer reviewed (double-blind) journal. The journal publishes original&nbsp;articles as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;reviews and brief reports and notes focused on new data of&nbsp;theoretical and experimental research in&nbsp;the fields of&nbsp;marine biology, diversity of&nbsp;marine organisms and their populations and communities, patterns of&nbsp;distribution of&nbsp;animals and plants in&nbsp;the World Ocean, the&nbsp;results of&nbsp;a&nbsp;comprehensive studies of&nbsp;marine and oceanic ecosystems, anthropogenic impact on&nbsp;marine organisms and on&nbsp;the ecosystems.</p> <p>Intended audience: biologists, hydrobiologists, ecologists, radiobiologists, biophysicists, oceanologists, geographers, scientists of other related specialties, graduate students, and students of&nbsp;relevant scientific profiles.</p> <p>The subscription index in&nbsp;the “<a title="Russian Press MBJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Russian Press</a>” catalogue is Е38872.</p> </div> </div> A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol, Russian Federation en-US Marine Biological Journal 2499-9768 “Study of Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems: History and Contemporary State”. International scientific conference dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Sevastopol Biological Station – A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas and to the 45th anniversary of the research vessel “Professor Vodyanitsky” <p>The international scientific conference dedicated to the 150<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the Sevastopol Biological Station – A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas and to the 45<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the RV “Professor Vodyanitsky” was held 13 to 18 September, 2021. In the conference, more than 370 researchers took part representing 95 scientific institutions, educational institutions, and departments. In total, 220 oral, 70 virtual, and 70 poster reports were presented.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 108 111 In memoriam: Zosim Finenko (17.11.1938 – 15.11.2021) <p>On 15 November, 2021, Zosim Finenko passed away, an outstanding hydrobiologist, D. Sc., Prof., chief researcher at IBSS. Z. Finenko is the author of more than 150 scientific articles and 5 collective monographs.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 112 114 Working collection of carotenogenic microalgae living cultures of A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas <p>The article contains information on the specialized working collection of carotenogenic microalgae maintained by the staff of the animal physiology and biochemistry department of A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS (IBSS). The collection was established within the framework of IBSS scientific and applied research to study the mechanisms of stress tolerance in eurybiontic and extremophilic single-celled phototrophs and to identify commercially significant sources of highly valuable ketocarotenoids of astaxanthin group used for medicine and food production. The collection contains 44 microalgal strains of various taxonomic and ecological specialization with a pronounced ability to hypersynthesize secondary carotenoids and lipids under extreme conditions (drying, nutrient starvation, high-intensity illumination, extreme temperature and salinity, effect of toxicants, <em>etc.</em>). The main ways to replenish the fund are direct exchange of carotenogenic species with leading Russian and foreign collections of microalgae and own field sampling in the Black Sea areas of Crimea and Caucasus. The majority of strains in the collection represent two orders of the class Chlorophyceae: Chlamydomonadales (25 strains) and Sphaeropleales (15 strains), since the phenomenon of secondary carotenogenesis is widespread in these orders. Out of them, inhabitants of ephemeral freshwater ponds predominate, as well as aerophilic and soil microalgae. All strains are maintained under controlled conditions on agarized mineral media as pure cultures. Description of the collection accession includes the following data: a) current taxonomic status of the species verified according to updated information from corresponding collections and algological databases, namely AlgaeBase and NCBI Taxonomy Browser; b) species basionym and known synonyms; c) date and source of the strain deposition; d) author’s surname, geographic location, and biotope, from which the strain was isolated; e) accession number of sequences associated with the strain in NCBI (if any); and f) nutrient medium, on which the strain is maintained in the IBSS collection. The significance of the collection for morphological, biological, physiological, and biochemical studies of growth, secondary carotenogenesis, and biotechnological potential in green microalgae is discussed.</p> N. V. Dantsyuk E. S. Chelebieva G. S. Minyuk Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 3 18 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.01 Content of nutrients and limitation of phytoplankton primary production in the specially protected natural area “Cape Martyan” (Black Sea) <p>The results are presented of studying the content of nitrogen compounds and mineral phosphorus, as well as phytoplankton primary production (PPP). The research was carried out in 2017–2019 in the marine area of the specially protected natural area “Cape Martyan” located on the southern coast of Crimea (Black Sea). As found, during summer in the surface seawater layer, PPP can be limited by both nitrogen and phosphorus. The dependence of PPP variation on the concentration of total nitrogen in water is not significant, while the dependence on the concentration of phosphorus is significant. It is shown that during the entire annual cycle, concentrations of nitrites, nitrates, ammonium, and mineral phosphorus vary but remain within the limits that do not lead to water hypereutrophication. A high ecological significance of precipitation was revealed: the related increase in PO<sub>4</sub> concentration caused a transition in PPP limitation mode from phosphorus to nitrogen one. Using theoretical concepts, it is substantiated that, under oligotrophic conditions, an increase in the concentration of the substrate limiting PPP in water results in an increase in the rate of its uptake from the environment in accordance with the negative feedback of natural regulation of ecosystem homeostasis. Under conditions of eutrophication, the effect of production processes on water conditioning by the factor of nutrients decreases.</p> V. N. Egorov N. I. Bobko Yu. G. Marchenko S. Ye. Sadogurskiy Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 19 30 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.02 Intensive culture of Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reimann et Lewin on the nutrient medium with sodium bicarbonate <p>The possibility is shown experimentally of using sodium bicarbonate in a nutrient medium to provide <em>C. closterium</em> culture with carbon under conditions of intensive cultivation without supplying CO<sub>2</sub> to the suspension. After <em>C. closterium</em> adaptation to a nutrient medium with sodium bicarbonate with a concentration of 1.2 g·L<sup>−1</sup>, active growth is observed, with a maximum productivity of 0.6–0.7 g·(L·day)<sup>−1</sup> of dry weight. Carbon penetrates into diatom cells both in the form of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ions. However, all nutrient media for artificial cultivation of diatoms still require using CO<sub>2</sub> from the atmosphere or from a gas cylinder. The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of using sodium bicarbonate to provide <em>C. closterium</em> with carbon under conditions of intensive cultivation without supplying CO<sub>2</sub> to the suspension. The culture was grown in the mode of accumulative cultivation in a 1-L flask on the RS nutrient medium prepared with sterile Black Sea water; its composition was as follows (g·L<sup>−1</sup>): NaNO<sub>3</sub> – 0.775; NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>·2H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.0641; Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub>·9H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.386; Na<sub>2</sub>EDTA – 0.0872; FeSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.045; CuSO<sub>4</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.2·10<sup>−3</sup>; ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.44·10<sup>−3</sup>; CoCl<sub>2</sub>·6H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.2·10<sup>−3</sup>; MnCl<sub>2</sub>·4H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.36·10<sup>−3</sup>; and NaMoO<sub>4</sub>·H<sub>2</sub>O – 0.12·10<sup>−3</sup>. Previously, 1.2 g·L<sup>−1</sup> of sodium bicarbonate was dissolved there. Сell suspension was stirred with a magnetic stirrer (250 rpm). On the 4<sup>th</sup> day of the experiment, 1 g of NaHCO<sub>3</sub> and 2 mL of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid were added to the culture in order to lower the medium pH down to 8.6. From the 2<sup>nd</sup> day of the experiment, active growth was observed, with a maximum productivity of 0.6 g·(L·day)<sup>−1</sup>. After adding 1 g·L<sup>−1</sup> of sodium bicarbonate to the actively growing culture and lowering pH down to 8.6, the growth rate approached almost zero, but considering the increase rate of the medium pH during adaptation, the culture actively absorbed bicarbonate ions. The possibility of cultivating the benthic diatom <em>C. closterium</em> on a nutrient medium with a high sodium bicarbonate content is experimentally shown. As found, on the RS nutrient medium with 1.2 g·L<sup>−1</sup> of sodium bicarbonate added under conditions of intensive cultivation, <em>C. closterium</em> maximum productivity reaches 0.7 g·(L·day)<sup>−1</sup>, with a significant increase in the medium pH. According to our data, optimal medium pH for <em>C. closterium</em> growth is in the range of 8.4–9.4. At higher values (pH &gt; 9.4), the growth of diatoms slows down; at pH = 9.9, the culture enters the dying phase.</p> S. N. Zheleznova R. G. Gevorgiz Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 31 38 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.03 Steroid hormones, selenium, and zinc in the gonads – gametes – larvae biological system of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. <p>Assessment of the interaction of marine farms with the environment in the industrial cultivation of the mussel <em>Mytilus galloprovincialis</em> is very important. In the mussel farm – environment system, biotic fluxes of chemical compounds through gonads, gametes (sperm and eggs), and larvae make a considerable contribution to this interaction. Since gonads play a key role in the mussel reproduction, it is interesting to study the budget of materials, that are directly involved in this process. Out of these materials, testosterone, estradiol, fatty acids, and some trace minerals, such as Se and Zn, are known to affect spawning, growth, and development. The molluscs absorb these materials from food and water. These materials are partly metabolically assimilated by mussels and partly excreted into the environment with gametes. The aim of this study was to estimate the components of the budget of steroid hormones, fatty acids, and two essential trace elements (Zn and Se) in mussel gonads, gametes, and larvae. The total testosterone and estradiol in gonads and gametes were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The contents of the trace elements were found using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The fatty acid composition was determined by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The contents of Se and Zn in mussel gonads and gametes were found to depend on the stage of the reproductive cycle. In female gonads, Se and Zn concentrations were higher than in male ones. The highest concentration of Se was recorded in eggs: (14.7 ± 2.9) μg·g<sup>−1</sup> dry weight (d. w.). In sperm, it was (14.4 ± 1.8) μg·g<sup>−1</sup> d. w. Zn content in gonads before spawning was higher than in gametes. In male gonads and in sperm, its values were (27.5 ± 3.7) and (19.3 ± 6.4) μg·g<sup>−1</sup> d. w., respectively. In female gonads and eggs, the contents of zinc were (53.6 ± 10.9) and (49.3 ± 8.2) μg·g<sup>−1</sup> d. w., respectively. In spring, the mean values of Se and Zn assimilation degree (q) in gonads of the mussel were within 0.1–0.6. The limit values of the alimentary accumulation coefficient (K<sub>lim</sub>) of Se and Zn ranged 0.6 to 1.4. While spawning, mussels excrete polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which are probably used by other marine organisms. Up to 56.2 % of PUFA are excreted with sperm, and 48.1 %, with eggs, whereas in larvae this fraction does not exceed 10.2 %. The data obtained indicate that the molluscs assimilate sex hormones, fatty acids, selenium, and zinc to maintain vital processes: prostaglandins are synthesized from PUFA in the body, and testosterone esters are formed from testosterone. Se and Zn, when coupled with proteins, play a key role in the reproduction and formation of larval shells.</p> L. L. Kapranova V. I. Ryabushko M. V. Nekhoroshev S. V. Kapranov Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 39 50 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.04 Assessment of contamination of the estuarine area of the Northern Dvina River by calculating background concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) <p>This publication is a continuation of research on the quantitation of the heavy metal contamination level (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in the ecosystem components of the estuarine area of the Northern Dvina River. To assess the contamination level with these metals in the ecosystem of the Northern Dvina estuarine area in the spot of the highest anthropogenic load (the area of Novodvinsk – Arkhangelsk – Severodvinsk urban agglomeration), we use the method of comparative analysis of the study object with the background plot – the river section above urban development. Using spatial mapping of the enrichment factor values for the aquatic ecosystem components, areas with abnormal excess of metal content in mollusc tissues, bottom sediments, and bottom water layer were determined. As established, the area adjacent to the city center and to an industrial zone on the left bank is subject to the highest anthropogenic load in the water area of the river delta top. The most likely sources of contamination with the considered heavy metals are the inflow of surface wastewater (meltwater and rain storm runoff), untreated municipal wastewater, and direct short-range atmospheric transport. The analysis of mollusc tissues proved to be a more informative and indicative approach to the assessment of the heavy metal contamination in water areas with complex hydrological and hydrochemical environmental gradients than the analysis of bottom water layer and bottom sediments.</p> N. V. Neverova A. V. Chupakov Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 51 67 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.05 Redox conditions of bottom sediments and macrozoobenthos characteristics in the Kruglaya and Kazachya bays (Sevastopol) <p>A lack of systemic and environmentally efficient approach to exploitation of the Kruglaya and Kazachya bays (Sevastopol) resulted in their severe pollution. The conjunction of natural and anthropogenic factors led to deterioration of habitat conditions of benthic communities. The aim of this work was to carry out complex research of Kruglaya and Kazachya bays’ ecosystems to study peculiarities of formation of redox conditions in bottom sediments and bottom water layer, as well as their effect on macrozoobenthos characteristics. Bottom sediments were sampled by diver in plexiglass tubes hermetically sealed at the top and bottom; it helped in preserving a fine structure of bottom sediments and bottom water layer. To study benthic communities, samples were taken in the same spot with a manual sampler. To obtain chemical composition of pore waters with high vertical resolution, the voltammetry analysis was carried out. Calculation of an oxygen flux at the boundary and in the upper layer of bottom sediments was performed according to the vertical profile of oxygen concentration in pore waters and geochemical analysis with applying the equation for the Fick’s first law and considering concentration gradient and molecular diffusion of oxygen in pore waters. Standard hydrobiological methods were applied for the analysis of benthic material. When calculating the values of the Shannon diversity index (<em>H’</em>), the binary logarithm was used. The data analysis showed as follows: a high level of anthropogenic load and restricted water dynamics resulted in siltation of bottom sediments in the studied water areas, which obstructed oxygen penetration; the accumulation of organic carbon contributed to its active consumption. Stratification of a water column due to limited water exchange, high temperature of bottom water, accompanied by a decrease in oxygen solubility, and finely dispersed nature of bottom sediments contributed to the fact that the rate of oxygen input was lower than the rate of oxygen consumption for organic matter oxidation. This was followed by the development of oxygen deficiency zones and emergence of reduced compounds, in particular hydrogen sulfide. Importantly, suboxic conditions prevailed in the upper sediment layer, and anaerobic conditions prevailed below. Due to this, the main forms of macrozoobenthos were species tolerant to oxygen deficiency and organic pollution. Specifically, in some spots of the Kazachya Bay, polychaetes alone were recorded. At the same time, in the Kruglaya Bay mouth area, intense water dynamics and morphological peculiarities of bottom sediments contribute to saturation of the upper sediment layer with oxygen. Based on oxygen concentration data for the surface (0–5 mm) sediment layer (pore waters) and on geochemical peculiarities of bottom sediments (moisture and porosity), the oxygen flux at st. 4 (the Solenaya Bay) was calculated; the value was 0.73 M·m<sup>−2</sup>·year<sup>−1</sup>. Considering oxygen concentration in bottom water layer (259 μM), the time for complete depletion of oxygen or its renewal is about 5 months if taking into account biogeochemical processes alone. Hence, it can be assumed that the ecosystems of the Kruglaya and Kazachya bays are in the stage of degradation. Their further exploitation without a developed systemic and rational approach will result in a critical deterioration of the ecosystems – the emergence and spread of environmental risk zones. It will reduce the recreational and socioeconomic attractiveness of these areas.</p> N. A. Orekhova Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 68 86 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.06 On the presence of the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839) (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) in Maldivian waters <p>We present the first confirmed report on the presence of spinner shark, <em>Carcharhinus brevipinna</em>, in Maldivian waters. The species was observed in front of Kooddoo’s harbour, in Villingili pass, Northern Huvadhoo Atoll, Southern Maldives in March 2020.</p> F. Russo A. De Maddalena Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 87 91 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.07 Comparative characteristics of the trace elemental composition of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum, 1792 from the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk <p>Content of trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and cadmium) was determined in the most popular species of Pacific salmon on the consumer market – chum salmon <em>Oncorhynchus keta</em>, which is the second largest catch in Russian waters (after pink salmon <em>O. gorbuscha</em>). Metal content in fish organs and tissues (muscle tissue, liver, and gonads) was determined by the atomic absorption method using a Shimadzu AA-6800 spectrophotometer in flame and flameless atomizers from sample extracts; the latter ones were obtained by decomposition of weighed portions of concentrated HNO<sub>3</sub> (high purity) in a MARS 6 complex using standard samples with known concentrations. The data was statistically processed in SPSS Statistics 21. Sexually mature individuals of chum salmon (five specimens of males and females on each spot) were sampled in autumn 2018 in storage cages of salmon hatcheries on the Firsovka River (southeastern Sakhalin, Gulf of Patience) and Reidovaya River (Iturup Island, Kuril Islands), as well as in October 2019 in breeder holding cages on the Poima River (southwestern Primorye, the Sea of Japan). Muscle tissue, liver, and gonads were sampled from every individual. The elements determined were clearly divided according to content values into two groups depending on the sampling spot: Cd and Pb prevailed in organs and tissues of chum salmon from the Sakhalin-Kuril Region of the Sea of Okhotsk, whereas Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni prevailed in the Sea of Japan fish. The reason for heavy metal contrasting distribution in fish organs and tissues is obviously environmental geochemical conditions formed in salmon feeding areas and on migration routes. In the Sea of Japan, practically enclosed, poorly connected with the Pacific Ocean by several shallow straits, the aquatic environment is under significant anthropogenic, technogenic, and terrigenous load (household and industrial drains, surface washing from coastal areas, and combustion of hydrocarbon fuel by ships). In the Sakhalin-Kuril basin, it is affected by natural phenomena: surface and underwater volcanism and post-volcanism of the Kuril Islands, as well as upwellings, which carry from the depths of the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench into the surface layer practically the entire set of chemical elements of the Mendeleev’s periodic table. At the same time, Pb, with its unusually high sorbability, is retained on any suspended particles, both living and non-living, and enters fish organisms with food. The distribution of trace elements over chum salmon organs and tissues differs significantly. Specifically, in fish muscle tissues, the lowest metal content is observed, regardless of the catch spot. The liver is characterized by increased levels of all metals, except for Ni, with the highest Fe, Zn, and Cu content recorded in the Sea of Japan fish liver. The distribution of metals in fish gonads is characterized by its own specificity, with very clear manifestation in the Primorye salmon. Thus, in female gonads, Fe, Zn, and especially Cu predominated: Cu content in female gonads from the Poima River was the same as in liver. Female gonads of the Sea of Japan chum salmon had the highest Ni concentration, although male gonads were characterized by a high, albeit very variable, content of this element as well. As for Pb and Cd, the most toxic elements monitored by sanitary services (for technical reasons, we determined their amount in the Sea of Okhotsk fish only), a well-known pattern was observed in their distribution in organs and tissues: maximum content was found in fish liver. Pb content exceeded the sanitary standard only in some individuals that came to spawn in the Firsovka River in the southeastern Sakhalin. Cd concentration in Sakhalin fish liver was 2.5–4.0 times higher than threshold limit value, and in Kuril fish liver, 2.1–5.0 times higher.</p> N. K. Khristoforova A. V. Litvinenko V. Yu. Tsygankov M. V. Kovalchuk Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 92 104 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.08 Carbohydrates as an organic substrate for microalgae Tisochrysis lutea (Haptophyta) under conditions of laboratory culture <p>The possibility was studied of using carbohydrates in order to optimize the cultivation process of microalgae <em>Tisochrysis lutea</em> (Haptophyta). The effect of D-galactose, glucose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg·L<sup>−1</sup> on the dynamics of <em>T. lutea</em> abundance was analyzed. As found, adding of all the studied carbohydrates stimulated microalgae growth, with sucrose at a concentration of 200 mg·L<sup>−1</sup> having the most pronounced effect.</p> A. V. Ognistaya Zh. V. Markina Copyright (c) 2021 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 6 4 105 107 10.21072/mbj.2021.06.4.09