Marine Biological Journal https://mbj.marine-research.org/ <p>Морской биологический журнал Marine Biological Journal.</p> <div><em><strong>Launched in February 2016.</strong></em></div> <div><em><strong>Certificates of registration:</strong></em></div> <div>print version: <a href="https://mbj.marine-research.org/public/journals/1/doc/registry_print.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ПИ № ФС 77 - 76872 of 24.09.2019</a>,</div> <div>online version: <a href="https://mbj.marine-research.org/public/journals/1/doc/registry_online.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 76873 of 24.09.2019</a>.</div> <div> <div><em><strong>Founder:</strong></em></div> <div>A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS.</div> </div> <div><em><strong>Publishers</strong></em>:</div> <div><a href="http://ibss-ras.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A.&nbsp;O.&nbsp;Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of&nbsp;RAS</a>,</div> <div><a href="https://www.zin.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zoological Institute of&nbsp;RAS</a>.</div> <div>ISSN 2499-9768 print, ISSN 2499-9776 online.</div> <div><em><strong>Languages:&nbsp;</strong></em>Russian, English.</div> <div><em><strong>Periodicity:</strong></em> four issues a&nbsp;year.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><strong>Authors do&nbsp;not need to&nbsp;pay an&nbsp;article-processing charge.</strong></div> <div>The payment of&nbsp;royalties is&nbsp;not&nbsp;provided.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Author recieves one copy of&nbsp;printed version of&nbsp;the journal as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;.pdf file.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div> <div class="siteorigin-widget-tinymce textwidget"> <p>Marine Biological Journal is&nbsp;an&nbsp;open access, peer reviewed (double-blind) journal. The journal publishes original&nbsp;articles as&nbsp;well as&nbsp;reviews and brief reports and notes focused on new data of&nbsp;theoretical and experimental research in&nbsp;the fields of&nbsp;marine biology, diversity of&nbsp;marine organisms and their populations and communities, patterns of&nbsp;distribution of&nbsp;animals and plants in&nbsp;the World Ocean, the&nbsp;results of&nbsp;a&nbsp;comprehensive studies of&nbsp;marine and oceanic ecosystems, anthropogenic impact on&nbsp;marine organisms and on&nbsp;the ecosystems.</p> <p>Intended audience: biologists, hydrobiologists, ecologists, radiobiologists, biophysicists, oceanologists, geographers, scientists of other related specialties, graduate students, and students of&nbsp;relevant scientific profiles.</p> <p>The subscription index in&nbsp;the “<a title="Russian Press MBJ" href="https://www.pressa-rf.ru/cat/1/edition/e38872/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Russian Press</a>” catalogue is Е38872.</p> </div> </div> A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol, Russian Federation en-US Marine Biological Journal 2499-9768 Zooplankton productivity in the coastal area of the southern Barents Sea in spring https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/257 <p>The results of the analysis of zooplankton assemblage state of the southern Barents Sea are presented. Zooplankton samples were collected during the cruise of the RV “Dalnie Zelentsy” in May 2016. Hydrological conditions were typical for Murmansk coastal water this season. A total of 47 zooplankton taxa were identified. Taxa number varied between stations, ranging 18–29, with copepods being a dominant group in zooplankton. The most frequent ones were <em>Calanus finmarchicus</em>, <em>Metridia longa</em>, <em>Metridia lucens</em>, <em>Microcalanus</em> spp., <em>Oithona atlantica</em>, <em>Oithona similis</em>, <em>Pseudocalanus</em> spp., copepod nauplii and ova, as well as cladoceran <em>Evadne nordmanni</em>, larvae of Echinodermata and Polychaeta, chaetognath <em>Parasagitta elegans</em>, and early stages of the euphausiids of the genus <em>Thysanoessa</em>. In populations of common copepod species <em>Pseudocalanus</em> spp. and <em>Oithona similis</em>, early age stages dominated, which indicated their continued reproduction. Total zooplankton abundance ranged from 748 to 6576 ind.·m<sup>−3</sup>, averaging 3012. Total zooplankton biomass varied from 17 to 157 mg of dry mass per m³, with a mean value of 83. The data obtained were comparable to those registered in Murmansk coastal water in July 2008 and were higher than those in August 2007. The authors suggest that it might be related to the differences in sampling seasons and hydrological conditions. Daily zooplankton production was estimated to be 0.49–4.04 mg of dry mass per m³, averaging (2.17 ± 0.17). These estimates were about twice as high as mean values, registered in Murmansk coastal water during summer period. This seems to be due to higher phytoplankton concentrations in spring. Total zooplankton stock for water area studied (25.8 thousand km²) was estimated to be 425,000 thousand tons of dry mass. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of stations that differ in relative abundance of <em>Calanus finmarchicus</em>, Copepoda nauplii, <em>Oithona similis</em>, larvae of Echinodermata, and appendicularian <em>Fritillaria borealis</em>. Spatial variation of zooplankton abundance was closely related to station location (latitude, longitude, and sampling depth), as well as bottom layer temperature and mean salinity at the station.</p> V. G. Dvoretsky A. G. Dvoretsky Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 3 14 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.01 Genotyping of Black Sea trematodes of the family Opecoelidae by mitochondrial markers https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/262 <p>Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925 (Trematoda: Opecoeloidea) is the biggest trematode family in the Black Sea in terms of species and genera number. Maritae of the most common Black Sea Opecoelidae trematodes are well described morphologically; nevertheless, information on their genomes structure is sketchy, and data on mitochondrial genomes are absent. The aim was to study the structure of mitochondrial genome fragments of Black Sea trematode species: <em>Cainocreadium flesi</em> Korniychuk &amp; Gaevskaya, 2000, <em>Gaevskajatrema perezi</em> (Mathias, 1926) Gibson &amp; Bray, 1982, and <em>Helicometra fasciata</em> (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1902. Sequences were made for CO1 (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and 16S mitochondrial genes. To amplify CO1 gene fragment of <em>Cainocreadium</em> and <em>Helicometra</em> trematodes, primers were developed. Phylogenetic relationships within the analyzed part of the Opecoelidae family were reconstructed on the basis of our data and the corresponding GenBank data by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm, implemented in MEGA X program. To root the phylogenetic trees, the corresponding sequences of the closely related trematode <em>Brachycladium goliath</em> (Brachycladioidea: Brachycladiidae) were used. For the first time, nucleotide sequences of CO1 and 16S mitochondrial genes fragments of Black Sea trematodes <em>C. flesi</em>, <em>G. perezi</em>, and <em>H. fasciata</em> from different definitive fish hosts were identified and deposited in GenBank. In case of <em>C. flesi</em>, no host-specific lines were found in the structure of CO1 mitochondrial gene fragment, but high CO1 nucleotide diversity was noted. Black Sea <em>H. fasciata</em>, parasitizing peacock wrasse, <em>Symphodus tinca</em>, were revealed to be a host-specific CO1 haplogroup; its taxonomic status requires further clarification, and ecological and genetic studies of the putative <em>H. fasciata</em> species complex from different water areas are needed. No host-specific genetic lines were found when analyzing the sequences of <em>H. fasciata</em> 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene fragment. No significant differences in 16S fragment were registered between <em>G. perezi</em> trematodes from different Black Sea definitive hosts; however, the intraspecific 16S nucleotide diversity was rather high.</p> A. V. Katokhin Yu. M. Kornyychuk Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 15 27 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.02 Impact of 24-hour hypoxia on hemocyte functions of Anadara kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/259 <p>Shellfish farms are usually located in coastal areas, where molluscs can be exposed to hypoxia. Cultivating at low oxygen levels causes general disruptions of growth rate, outbreaks of diseases, and mollusc mortality. Impact of short-term hypoxia on hemocyte functions of ark clam (<em>Anadara kagoshimensis</em>) was investigated by flow cytometry. A control group was incubated at 6.7–6.8 mg O<sub>2</sub>·L<sup>−1</sup>, an experimental one – at 0.4–0.5 mg O<sub>2</sub>·L<sup>−1</sup>. Exposition lasted for 24 hours. Hypoxia was created by blowing seawater in shellfish tanks with nitrogen gas. In ark clam hemolymph, 2 groups of hemocytes were identified on the basis of arbitrary size and arbitrary granularity: granulocytes (erythrocytes) and agranulocytes (amebocytes). Erythrocytes were the predominant cell type in <em>A. kagoshimensis</em> hemolymph, amounting for more than 90 %. No significant changes in cellular composition of ark clam hemolymph were observed. The production of reactive oxygen species and hemocyte mortality in the experimental group also remained at control level. The results of this work indicate ark clam tolerance to hypoxia.</p> E. S. Kladchenko A. Yu. Andreyeva T. A. Kukhareva V. N. Rychkova A. A. Soldatov Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 28 36 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.03 Biogeochemical characteristics of shallow methane seeps of Crimean coastal areas in comparison with deep-sea seeps of the Black Sea https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/260 <p>Methane gas bubble emissions (seeps) are widespread phenomenon in the World Ocean, <em>inter alia</em> in Black Sea basin. The relevance of the research of methane seeps is due to their important role as a source of methane – greenhouse and environment-forming gas – for water column and atmosphere. The article presents a comparative analysis of the data from our biogeochemical 10-year studies of shallow gas seeps of the Crimean Peninsula and data on deep-sea gas seeps of the Black Sea. During 10-year period, apart from carrying out hydroacoustic research, the following parameters were determined: bubble gas component composition, methane carbon isotopic composition, microbial community structure of bacterial mats, covering gas bubble emission sites, and gas fluxes from separate seeps. During long-term monitoring, 14 separate gas bubble emission sites were detected and described in Crimean coastal areas; they were located from Cape Tarkhankut in the west of the peninsula to the Dvuyakornaya Bay in the southeast. Crimean coastal seeps were mostly of biogenic origin, with a seasonal type of gas bubble emission. Laspi Bay seeps were classified as emissions of deep gas of thermocatalytic genesis. A significant variation was recorded in values of isotopic composition of methane carbon δ<sup>13</sup>C-CH<sub>4</sub> of bubble gas in coastal shallow areas (−94…−34 ‰), which indicates different conditions for bubble gas generation and maturation in seabed sediments. Similar to deep-sea seeps, coastal gas bubble emissions were accompanied by bacterial mats of diverse structure, with different dominating species. As shown, formation of stable bacterial biomass, usually consisting of sulfide- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, requires a fluid flux of reduced dissolved gases, while pointwise bubble gas discharge does not provide sufficient concentration gradients and can mechanically disrupt community structure. Various methods were used to estimate the size spectra of bubbles, as well as fluxes from separate seeps. Gas flux values varied from 1.8 L·day<sup>−1</sup> (the Martynova Bay) to 40 L·day<sup>−1</sup> (the Laspi Bay). The environment-forming effects, related to gas bubble emission in coastal areas, are discussed: effect of seeps on oxygen conditions in seabed sediments and in water column above gas emission sites, vertical water mixing due to gas lift effect, and fluid discharge at gas emission sites.</p> T. V. Malakhova V. N. Egorov L. V. Malakhova Yu. G. Artemov N. V. Pimenov Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 37 55 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.04 Heavy metals in surface water of the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic during the 79th cruise of the research vessel “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh” https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/261 <p>Relevance of monitoring heavy metals content in the water of the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic is due to the need for a current assessment of quality of the marine environment for making responsible decisions on the conservation of marine living resources in this unique area of the World Ocean. The aim of the study was to obtain new data on levels and spatial distribution of concentrations of trace elements, mainly heavy metals, in surface water. Sampling of surface seawater was carried out during the Antarctic expedition of the 79<sup>th</sup> cruise of the RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh” at 21 stations in the area of the Drake Passage, the Bransfield Strait, and the Antarctic Sound, as well as in Weddell and Scotia seas. Extracting and concentrating of dissolved form of 13 trace elements (Be, Se, Sb, Tl, V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mo, Co, and Fe) were performed using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>). The elements were measured by mass spectrometry. Among all trace elements content, only Mo concentration in seawater at 9 stations, located in the Drake Passage, the Bransfield Strait, northern Weddell Sea, and off the southern coast of Tierra del Fuego Island, exceeded 1.2–2.8 times maximum permissible concentration of trace elements in fishery water bodies of the Russian Federation (MPC<sub>F</sub>). According to international regulatory legal acts, such as “Dutch sheets”, there were single cases of exceeding MPC (maximum permissible concentration under short-term exposure) for Cd and Zn, as well as exceeding TV (target value under chronic exposure) for Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Se, and Co at several stations. The research has shown as follows: despite limited anthropogenic pressure on this area of the Southern Ocean, in seawater of some regions of the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic, increased concentrations of several trace elements, <em>inter alia</em> heavy metals, are recorded. Further study of the sources of trace elements intake and the peculiarities of their distribution in seawater of the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic is required in order to account for ongoing processes, take measures for rational management, and provide ecologically acceptable use of natural resources in the Antarctic.</p> N. Yu. Mirzoeva N. N. Tereshchenko A. A. Paraskiv V. Yu. Proskurnin E. G. Morozov Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 56 68 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.05 Spectral bio-optical properties of water of Atlantic sector of Antarctic https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/263 <p>Studies of variability of spectral bio-optical properties of water of Atlantic sector of Antarctic were carried out during the 79<sup>th</sup> cruise of the RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh” (11.01.2020–04.02.2020). Chlorophyll <em>a</em> and phaeopigment concentration varied in the layer studied from 0.1 to 1.8 mg·m<sup>−3</sup>, except for two stations with content reaching 2.2 and 4.4 mg·m<sup>−3</sup>. The relationship was revealed between light absorption coefficient by phytoplankton and chlorophyll <em>a</em> concentration at a wavelength, corresponding to spectrum maxima: a<sub>ph</sub>(438) = 0.044 × C<sub>a</sub><sup>1.2</sup>, <em>r<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.84 (<em>n</em> = 117); a<sub>ph</sub>(678) = 0.021 × C<sub>a</sub><sup>1.1</sup>, <em>r<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.89 (<em>n</em> = 117). Spectral distribution of light absorption coefficient by non-algal particles and colored dissolved organic matter was described by exponential function. Absorption parameterization coefficients were retrieved: (1) light absorption coefficient by non-algal particles (0.001–0.027 m<sup>−1</sup>) and by colored dissolved organic matter (0.016–0.19 m<sup>−1</sup>) at a wavelength of 438 nm; (2) spectral slope coefficients of these components (0.005–0.016 and 0.009–0.022 nm<sup>−1</sup>, respectively).</p> N. A. Moiseeva T. Ya. Churilova T. V. Efimova V. A. Artemiev E. Yu. Skorokhod Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 69 78 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.06 Cestodes of Antarctic and Subantarctic fish: History and prospects of research https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/264 <p>The first information about cestodes of Antarctic and Subantarctic fish appeared at the beginning of the XX century: a cestode <em>Phyllobothrium dentatum</em> from an unknown shark was described. Peak of activity of studying Antarctic cestodes fell on 1990–2006. During this period, significant works were published, devoted to description of new species, their life cycles, host specificity of cestodes – fish parasites, and their geographical distribution. A notable contribution to the study of elasmobranch cestodes was made by a group of Polish scientists, headed by Wojciechowska (Rocka). Systematic position of 21 cestode species from 13 genera of 8 families of 6 orders was analyzed. Cestode fauna has been studied in less than 7 % of the total ichthyofauna of this area, while potential definitive and intermediate hosts remain unexplored. The largest number of cestode species (12) was recorded in four ray species of the family Rajidae. Eight cestode species, reaching sexual maturity, have been registered in intestines of teleosts: <em>Bothriocephalus antarcticus</em>, <em>B. kerguelensis</em>, <em>Bothriocephalus</em> sp., <em>Parabothriocephalus johnstoni</em>, <em>P. macruri</em>, <em>Clestobothrium crassiceps</em>, <em>Neobothriocephalus</em> sp., and <em>Eubothrium</em> sp. Larvae of five cestode species (<em>Onchobothrium antarcticum</em>, <em>Grillotia (Grillotia) erinaceus</em>, <em>Lacistorhynchus tenuis</em>, <em>Calyptrobothrium</em> sp., and <em>Hepatoxylon trichiuri</em>), ending their development in elasmobranchs, were found in teleosts. Systematic position of 5 cestode species out of 12, found in rays, is unidentified. Cestode fauna is characterized by a high level of endemism: 67 % of the total cestode fauna is not found to the north of Subantarctic. Coastal areas, mostly covered by research, are those in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of Antarctic. The biodiversity of elasmobranch cestodes, inhabiting Antarctic and Subantarctic, is underestimated, since only one third of species of these fish have been studied so far. Genetic studies of Antarctic cestodes have just begun to develop. Ribosomal sequences from D1–D3 fragments of 28S rDNA are known for 2 species only: <em>Onchobothrium antarcticum</em> from the second intermediate (<em>Notothenia rossii</em> and <em>Dissostichus mawsoni</em>) and definitive hosts (<em>Bathyraja eatonii</em>), as well as larvae of <em>Calyptrobothrium</em> sp. from the second intermediate hosts (<em>D. mawsoni</em> and <em>Muraenolepis marmorata</em>). The main directions of further research on cestode fauna should be developed in combination with morphological, faunistic, genetic, and ecological studies.</p> T. A. Polyakova I. I. Gordeev Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 79 93 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.07 Some peculiarities in vertical distribution of metazoan microzooplankton in the Black Sea in spring https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/265 <p>Based on material, received in the 84<sup>th</sup> and 93<sup>rd</sup> cruises of the RV “Professor Vodyanitsky”, vertical distribution of microplankton fraction of metazooplankton (MM) in the Black Sea in spring was analyzed. A total of 27 stations were examined both in the coastal zone and in the deep sea. The 10-L bottles of the CTD probes “Mark-III Neil Brown” and “Sea Bird 911” were used to collect 4–6 L of water from 4–11 horizons of the water column. The samples obtained were concentrated by the reverse filtration through the plankton net with the mesh size of 10 µm. Quantitative and systematic analysis of all samples was carried out totally in the Bogorov chamber using an MBS-9 stereo microscope. The main factors determining nature of the distribution are MM species composition, physical structure of the water column, and hydrodynamic processes affecting its stability/instability. Nauplii of Black Sea Copepoda and veligers of Bivalvia were the most numerous systematic groups in “spring” MM. Mollusc veligers determined abundance maxima in the lower layers of shallow water habitats, while copepods prevailed over large depths and determined total abundance peaks in the upper and middle water layers. Daily time series experiment showed that advective hydrodynamic processes can significantly affect MM vertical distribution, changing physical structure of the water column. For some species, in most cases, a correlation of their distribution with vertical profiles of temperature and salinity was revealed, which rarely manifested at total MM abundance level. A comparison of two spring seasons (2016 and 2017) showed the relationship between vertical distribution of MM abundance and temperature to be more pronounced in cases of low temperature. A change in the sign of correlation with temperature was detected during spring season for <em>Oithona similis</em>: an initially cold-loving species of Black Sea copepods. This revealed in a more superficial distribution of the maxima abundance of this species at lower seasonal temperatures, which could reflect a shift in temperature optimum for the species population and play the role of an adaptive reaction in conditions of seasonal changes in sea thermal characteristics.</p> S. A. Seregin Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 94 107 10.21072/mbj.2020.05.4.08 To the jubilee of D. Sc. Nelli Sergeeva https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/266 <p>In November 2020, IBSS chief researcher, D. Sc. Nelli Sergeeva celebrates her jubilee. She is the world-famous expert in meiobenthology, the author of more than 200 publications, and the co-author of 9 monographs.</p> Colleagues from IBSS benthos ecology department Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 108 111 To the memory of Valery Eremeev (12.01.1942 – 31.10.2020) https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/268 <p>Academician Valery Eremeev, who was the head of IBSS in 1999–2015, has passed away. He is the author of more than 500 scientific works, <em>inter alia</em> 15 monographs and 3 atlases of the Sea of Azov – Black Sea basin. V. Eremeev was the organizer and participant of numerous oceanographic expeditions, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and <em>honoris causa</em> of the Russian Academy of Sciences.</p> Staff of IBSS Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 112 117 Global problems of the World Ocean: results of the XI All-Russian school-seminar for young scientists https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/267 <p>The XI All-Russian school-seminar for young scientists, students, and postgraduates “Modern hydrobiology: Global problems of the World Ocean”, organized by IBSS Council of young scientists, took place on 28 September – 02 October 2020. All the events were held online. Participants got acquainted with the research on fundamental bases of hydrobionts adaptation to environmental changes, problems of conservation and rational use of marine biological resources, perspective directions of marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and methodology and organization of operational control of Black Sea biota and coastal ecosystems. More than 30 participants and listeners took part in the work of the school-seminar. A book of proceedings is uploaded in the national bibliographic database Russian&nbsp;Science&nbsp;Citation&nbsp;Index.</p> E. S. Kladchenko Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 118 119 Online conference “Actual problems of research of Black Sea ecosystems – 2020” https://mbj.marine-research.org/article/view/269 <p>The results of the work of the online conference “Actual problems of research of Black Sea ecosystems – 2020” are presented. The scientific forum was held on 19–22 October 2020 on the basis of IBSS. More than 140 researchers, representing 15 Russian scientific and educational institutions, took part in the conference.</p> Yu. M. Kornyychuk N. V. Pospelova N. V. Velichko Copyright (c) 2020 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 5 4 120 122