LONG-TERM DYNAMIC OF REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EUROPEAN ANCHOVY ENGRAULIS ENCRASICOLUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AND ITS CONNECTION WITH TEMPERATURE

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G. V. Zuev T. N. Klimova

Abstract

European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most numerous species of fish in the Azov-Black Sea basin. It is the main commercial fishery object, its share being about 80 %. Assessment of the functional state of the anchovy population and its dynamics in conditions of the climatic warming was one of the topical tasks in contemporary research. The paper is devoted to the study of a long-term dynamic of anchovy population: reproductive parameters and its relation with water temperature for the purpose of potential prediction. The results of our own investigations made in 2000–2015 in the area bordering the south-western coast of Crimean peninsula (Sevastopol–Balaklava region) have been considered in the paper. The eggs were collected with Bogorov – Rass net (BR-80/113) from the layer of 0–10 m. Adult specimen were caught with pound seines. 702 ichthyoplankton samples and 941 mature anchovy females (gonad maturation stage V, VI–IV and VI–V) were analyzed. Calendar dates and duration of spawning season, intensity and efficiency of spawning, intraspecific composition of mature anchovy females were researched. Calendar dates of anchovy spawning beginning near the south-western coast of Crimea in 2000–2014 varied from the 2nd decade of May (early spawning) to the 3rd decade of June (late spawning); finishing dates – from the 3rd decade of August to the 3rd decade of September. Total reproductive period duration was 8–14 weeks, average – 11 weeks. In long-term plan the time shift for earlier calendar dates was determined at the start of the spawning. Maximum peak of spawning intensity in 2012–2013 varied from 33.6 to 78.7 % (average 51.2 %). Peak of population spawning was in July – August, its repeatability in July – 25 and in August 66.7 %. The peak spawning shift to the earlier time was determined in perennial plan: in 2000-2005 years peak spawning periodicity amounts in August to 100 %; in 2007–2013 – only 50 %. Absolute number of eggs (spawning efficiency) change from 1.6 to 29.9 specimen·m −2 in 2000–2014 years (average 10.3 specimen·m −2 ). Low, average and high yielding years with number of eggs less than 10, 10-20 and more than 20.0 specimen·m −2 were determined. The average spawning efficiency was: 5.1, 14.5 and 25.0 specimen·m −2 respectively. Spawning efficiency in high-yielding years exceeded 1.7 and 4.9 times the efficiency of low and average-yielding years. In long-term plan the positive efficiency spawning trend was determined. In 2000–2001 the intraspecific structure reconstruction of anchovy took place, followed by redistribution of numerical relation in composition of spawning part of the Azov and the Black Sea subspecies in favor of the last one. In 2000-2004 relative abundance of Black Sea anchovy amounted 33.3 %, in 2005–2011 years – 76.7 %. Simultaneously a considerable catch growth was registered. Сorrelation coefficient of the Black Sea anchovy’s relative abundance and catch was 0.92. Calendar time of spawning beginning, its intensity and efficiency are closely connected with the water temperature. Lower temperature limit for mass spawning was 17.5 °С. The region of “maximum favorable spawning temperature” lays in the range of 23 °C and warmer. Nearly 2/3 of population reproductive potential is realized within this temperature range.

Article Details

Keywords
anchovy, spawning intensity, spawning efficiency, intraspecific structure reconstruction, water temperature, population, catch
Section
Overview

References

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